Swedish Personal Pronouns and Verb Conjugation

Swedish Classes

Swedish Personal Pronouns

The personal and possessive pronouns in Swedish are
meaning nominative form object form possessive
I jag mig min/mitt/mina
you (singular) du dig din/ditt/dina
he han honom hans
she hon henne hennes
man sig sig one (indefinite generic third-person)
it (uter) den den dess
it (neuter) det det dess
we vi oss vår/vårt/våra
you (plural) ni er er/ert/era
they de dem deras
(reflexive) sig sin/sitt/sina
(mutual-reflexive) varandra

Swedish Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns

with en words with ett words with plural words
my / mine min mitt mina
your / yours din ditt dina
his / her / its / their sin sitt sina
his / his hans hans hans
her / hers hennes hennes hennes
its / its dess dess dess
our / ours vår vårt våra
your / yours er ert era
their / theirs deras deras deras
The same forms are used for possessive adjectives that are used directly before nouns and for possessive pronouns that replace a noun. For example, this is my car and this is mine would be translated as det här är min bil and det här är min. Sin, sitt and sina can only be used when the third person possessive adjective refers to the subject of the same clause. These words can be translated as his, her, its or their. Generally, if you cannot insert “own” after the possessive adjective in English, you cannot use sin/sitt/sina. Per besöker sin mamma. = Per visits his (own) mother. (Sin refers back to Per.) Eva ringer hans mamma. = Eva calls his mother. (Hans refers to Per, not Eva.)

Conjugating Regular Verbs in Swedish in the Present and Past Tenses

Infinitives in Swedish end in -a. When conjugating verbs, the same form is used for all subject pronouns, whether singular or plural. To form the present tense of verbs, either add -r to the infinitive or remove the -a and add -er.

tala – to speak (-ar verb) and stänga – to close (-er verb)

Present Tense
Past Tense
Present Tense
Past Tense
jag talar I speak jag talade I spoke jag stänger I close jag stängde I closed
du talar you speak du talade you spoke du stänger you close du stängde you closed
han talar he speaks han talade he spoke han stänger he closes han stängde he closed
hon talar she speaks hon talade she spoke hon stänger she closes hon stängde she closed
vi talar we speak vi talade we spoke vi stänger we close vi stängde we closed
ni talar you speak ni talade you spoke ni stänger you close ni stängde you closed
de talar they speak de talade they spoke de stänger they close de stängde they closed
Please note the three present tenses in English (simple, progressive and emphatic) are all translated by one verb form in Swedish. Jag talar can mean I speak, I am speaking or I do speak.

Swedish Verbs to Be & to Have

The present and past tenses of verbs in Swedish are very simple to conjugate. All the forms are the same for each personal pronoun. The infinitive of the verb to be in Swedish is vara, and the conjugated present tense form is är and the past tense is var. The infinitive of the verb to have is ha, and the conjugated present tense form is har and the past tense is hade.
att vara – to be
att ha – to have
I am jag är I was jag var I have jag har I had jag hade
you are du är you were du var you have du har you had du hade
he is han är he was han var he has han har he had han hade
she is hon är she was hon var she has hon har she had hon hade
it is den är it was den var it has den har it had den hade
it is det är it was det var it has det har it had det hade
one is man är one was man var one has man har one had man hade
we are vi är we were vi var we have vi har we had vi hade
you are ni är you were ni var you have ni har you had ni hade
they are de är they were de var they have de har they had de hade

To form the future tense of verbs, just add ska before the infinitive. Jag ska vara = I will be; hon ska ha = she will have; etc

Conjugate “prata” – Swedish conjugation

“prata” conjugation

jag pratar
du pratar
han/hon/den/det pratar
vi pratar
ni pratar
de pratar
jag pratade
du pratade
han/hon/den/det pratade
vi pratade
ni pratade
de pratade
jag har pratat
du har pratat
han/hon/den/det har pratat
vi har pratat
ni har pratat
de har pratat
jag hade pratat
du hade pratat
han/hon/den/det hade pratat
vi hade pratat
ni hade pratat
de hade pratat
jag ska prata; kommer (att) prata
du ska prata; kommer (att) prata
han/hon/den/det ska prata; kommer (att) prata
vi ska prata; kommer (att) prata
ni ska prata; kommer (att) prata
de ska prata; kommer (att) prata
du prata!
ni prata!
Conjugate “vara” – Swedish conjugation

“vara” conjugation

jag är
du är
han/hon/den/det är
vi är
ni är
de är
jag var
du var
han/hon/den/det var
vi var
ni var
de var
jag har varit
du har varit
han/hon/den/det har varit
vi har varit
ni har varit
de har varit

Conjugate “skriva” – Swedish conjugation

“skriva” conjugation

jag skriver
du skriver
han/hon/den/det skriver
vi skriver
ni skriver
de skriver
jag skrev
du skrev
han/hon/den/det skrev
vi skrev
ni skrev
de skrev
jag har skrivit
du har skrivit
han/hon/den/det har skrivit
vi har skrivit
ni har skrivit
de har skrivit

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