June 2016

French Pronouns

Subject Pronouns A pronoun is a word that is used to replace a noun (a person, place, thing, idea, or quality). Pronouns allow for fluidity by eliminating the need to constantly repeat the same noun in a sentence. A subject pronounreplaces a subject noun(the noun performing the action of the verb). Just as in English, French subject pronouns are given a person and a number (singular or plural), as shown in Table 1: Je Unlike the English pronoun “I,” the pronoun je is capitalized only when it begins a sentence. Je becomes j’ before a vowel or vowel sound ( y and unaspirated h — meaning that no puff of air is emitted when producing the h sound):

  • J’adore le français. (I love French.)
  • Voilà où j’habite. (There’s where I live.)
Tu Tu is used to address one friend, relative, child, or pet and is referred to as the familiar form of “you.” The u from tu is never dropped for purposes of elision: Tu es mon meilleur ami. (You are my best friend.) Vous Vous is used in the singular to show respect to an older person or when speaking to a stranger or someone you do not know very well.Vous is the polite or formal form of “you:” Vous êtes un patron très respecté. (You are a very respected boss.) In addition, vous is always used when speaking to more than one person, regardless of the degree of familiarity. Il and elle Il (he) and elle (she) may refer to a person or to a thing (it):
  • L’homme arrive. (The man arrives.) Il arrive. (He arrives.)
  • Le colis arrive. (The package arrives.) Il arrive. (It arrives.)
  • La dame arrive. (The lady arrives.) Elle arrive. (She arrives.)
  • La lettre arrive. (The letter arrives.) Elle arrive. (It arrives.)
On On refers to an indefinite person: you, we, they, or people in general.On is often used in place of nous, such as in the following: on part(we’re leaving). Ils and elles Ils refers to more than one male or to a combined group of males and females, despite the number of each gender present. Elles refers only to a group of females.
  • Anne et Luc partent. (Ann and Luke leave.) Ils partent. (They leave.)
  • Anne et Marie partent. (Ann and Marie leave.) Elles partent. (They leave.)
Ce The pronoun ce (it, he, she, this, that, these, those), spelled c’ before a vowel, is most frequently used with the verb être (to be): c’est (it is) orce sont (they are). Ce replaces ilelleils, and elles as the subject of the sentence in the following constructions:
  • Before a modified noun: C’est un bon avocat. (He’s a good lawyer.)
But, when unmodified, the following is correct: Il est avocat. (He’s a lawyer.)
  • Before a name: C’est Jean. (It’s John.)
  • Before a pronoun: C’est moi. (It is me.)
  • Before a superlative: C’est le plus grand. (It’s the biggest.)
  • In dates: C’est le dix mars.(It’s March 10th.)
  • Before a masculine singular adjective that refers to a previously mentioned idea or action: Il est important. (He is important.) C’est évident. (That’s obvious).
  • Before an adjective + à + infinitive (the form of any verb before it is conjugated): C’est bon à savoir. (That’s good to know.)
Use il in the following constructions:
  • To express the hour of the day: Il est deux heures. (It’s 2 o’clock.)
  • With an adjective + de + infinitive: Il est bon de manger. (It’s good to eat.)
  • With an adjective before queIl est important que je travaille. (It is important that I work.)

Danish Grammar: Pronouns and Conjugations

Danish Classes

Subject and Object Pronouns in Danish

jeg  I mig me
du you (singular) dig you (singular)
han he ham him
hun she hende her
den it (with en words) den it (with en words)
det it (with et words) det it  (with et words)
man  one en one
vi we os us
I you (plural) jer you (plural)
de they dem them
Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use den for en nouns, and det for ett nouns. Formerly, du was the informal you and De (written with a capital D) was the formal, but these distinctions are rarely used anymore. Notice that I (you – plural) is written with a capital letter.


Chinese Word Order

Mandarin Chinese word order

As mentioned above, basic Mandarin word order is SVO: subject + verb + object. Remember that this is just what’s typical in Mandarin. Different word orders can certainly appear.One major reason for this is that the idea of a “subject” isn’t as clear in Mandarin as it is in many other languages. The subject is often omitted, and Mandarin is more interested in the topic of a sentence; it’s a topic-prominent language.Still, SVO is a good place to start. Here are some examples of basic Mandarin SVO sentences, colour coded for subject (red), verb (green) and object (blue).我 爱你。 Wǒ ài nǐ. I love you.他 喜欢猫。 Tā xǐhuan māo. He likes cats.你 吃面条。 Nǐ chī miàntiáo. You eat noodles. 他们 去公园。 Tāmen qù gōngyuán. They go to the park. As you can see from the colour coding, the word order of these basic sentences is the same in Mandarin and English.

Auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs are also known as helper verbs. English is full of them, and so is Mandarin. In Mandarin, auxiliary verbs are placed before the main verb just as they are in English. Some more examples, with the auxiliary verb colour coded in purple. 她 会说中文。 Tā huì shuō zhōngwén. She can speak Chinese. 他们 可以帮助你。 Tāmen kěyǐ bāngzhù nǐ. They can help you.


English is a bit funny about negation. It doesn’t like negating main verbs, so if there isn’t an auxiliary verb it will insert one and negate that. In Mandarin you can just negate the main verb (negation colour coded in pink): 我 不喜欢他。 Wǒ bù xǐhuan tā. I don’t like him. 他们 不吃肉。 Tāmen bù chī ròu. They don’t eat meat. 她 不喝咖啡。 Tā bù hē kāfēi. She doesn’t drink coffee. When there is an auxiliary verb, Mandarin prefers to negate that. Some examples: 他们 不会说中文。 Tāmen bù huì shuō zhōngwén. They can not speak Chinese. 她 不要去。 Tā bùyào qù. She will not go. 我 不应该告诉你。 Wǒ bù yìng gāi gàosu nǐ. I should not tell you. Note how in English the negation occurs after what’s being negated, whereas in Chinese it comes before. This is because of a general rule in Chinese: modifiers precede what they modify .

Common conjunctions

  (): and   – can only link words and phrases, not sentences Example:
她喜欢茶和咖啡。 tā xǐhuan chá hé kāfēi She likes tea and coffee.
      (huò)    : or   – can only link words and phrases, not sentences 或者   (huòzhě): or   – 或者 can be used with words, phrases and sentences 还是   (háishì)  : or   – 还是 used in questions Examples:
我想买一瓶橙汁或一瓶苹果汁。 wǒ xiǎng mǎi yī píng chéngzhī huò yī píng píngguǒzhī. I would like to buy a bottle of orange juice or apple juice.
我想出去跳舞或者在家看电视. wǒ xiǎng chūqù tiàowǔ huòzhě zài jiā kàn diànshì. I would like to go dancing or to stay at home and watch TV.
你喝茶还是咖啡? nǐ hē chá háishì kāfēi? Do you drink tea or coffee?
如果 (rúguǒ): if
如果我有钱,我就买一辆新车。 rúguǒ wǒ yǒuqián, wǒ jiù mǎi yī liàng xīn chē If I had money, I would buy a new car.
可是 (kěshì): but
wǒ xǐhuān tīng liúxíng yīnyuè, kěshì wǒ péngyou xǐhuān tīng gǔdiǎn yīnyuè.
I like listening to pop music, but my friend likes listening to classical music.
因为 (yīnwèi): because
我学中文,因为我要去中国旅行。 wǒ xué zhōngwén, yīnwèi wǒ yào qù zhōngguó lǚxíng. I am studing Chinese because I want to go and travel in China.
所以 (suǒyǐ): therefore
她太忙了, 所以不出去跳舞。 tā tài máng le, suǒyǐ bù chūqù tiàowǔ. She is very busy, therefore she can’t go out dancing.
虽然 (suīrán): although
虽然他很忙, 他还是邀请我们去他家。 suīrán tā hěn máng, tā háishì yāoqǐng wǒmen qù tā jiā. Although he is very busy, he has invited us to his home.
除了 … 以外 (chúle … yǐwài): except
除了北京以外,我没去过其他地方。 chúle běijīng yǐwài, wǒ méi qù guò qítā dìfang. Apart from Beijing I have not been to any other places.
(jiù): is often used to create a link between the idea in the preceeding clause and the current clause.
如果你想看电视,我们就呆在家里。 rúguǒ nǐ xiǎng kàn diànshi, wǒmen jiǔ dāi zài jiā lǐ. If you want to watch TV, we can stay at home.

Adverbials: time, manner and place

The structure is getting a little more complicated now. Words that add information about the verb such as time, manner and place are known as adverbials. In Mandarin these nearly always come before the verb. This is different to English which tends to put them all over the place depending on the situation. Another difference between the two languages is that Mandarin has a specific order for this extra information: time first, then manner and then place. This sequence is a general rule. Some examples with adverbials in turquoise: 我 明天要去上海。 Wǒ míngtiān yào qù shànghǎi. I will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他 慢慢地吃饭。 Tā màn man de chī fàn. He eats slowly. 你 在这里等我。 Nǐ zài zhèlǐ děng wǒ. Wait for me here. 我 今天下午用电邮发。 Wǒ jīntiān xiàwǔ yòng diànyóu fā. I will send it by email this afternoon. 我们 意外地在箱子里找到了一只猫。 Wǒmen yìwàide zài xiāngzi lǐ zhǎodàole yī zhī māo. We unexpectedly found a cat in the box. 我 上个星期匆匆地在我的房间里看了四本书。 Wǒ shàng gè xīngqí cōngcōngde zài wǒ de fángjiān lǐ kànle sì běnshū. Last week I quickly read four books in my room.


Complements are a tricky topic in grammar. Mandarin has a few kinds of special complements that come after the verb: directional, degree, result and potential. The grammar of these is pretty complicated. The main point in terms of word order is that they occur after the verb. Some examples with complements marked in orange: 我 会下来。 Wǒ huì xiàlái. I will come down. 他 说得很好。 Tā shuō de hěn hǎo. He speaks well. 我 看到了他。 Wǒ kàndàole tā. I saw him. 她 听得懂。 Tā tīng dé dǒng. She understands.

A note on adjectives

Adjectives are placed before what they modify, as in English. This follows the general Chinese rule of modifiers preceding what they modify. Some example sentences with adjectives colour coded in turquoise (as they are modifiers just like adverbials): 所有人 都喜欢大的比萨。 Suǒyǒu rén dōu xǐhuan dà de bǐsà. Everyone likes bigpizzas. 瘦的 男人杀死了胖的男人。 Shòu de nánrén shā sǐle pàng de nánrén. The thin mankilled the fat man. 那辆 红色的汽车撞到了蓝色的卡车。 Nà liàng hóngsè de qìchē zhuàng dàole lánsè de kǎchē. That red car hit the blue van.

Swedish Essential Vocabulary

Swedish Days of the Week / Veckans dagar

Monday måndag
Tuesday tisdag
Wednesday onsdag
Thursday torsdag
Friday fredag
Saturday lördag
Sunday söndag
day dag
morning morgon
afternoon eftermiddag
evening afton (before 6 pm) / kväll
night natt
today idag
tomorrow imorgon
day after tomorrow i övermorgon
tonight ikväll
yesterday igår
day before yesterday i förrgår
last night igår natt
week vecka
weekend helg
daily daglig
weekly veckolig

Swedish Months of the Year / Årets månader

January januari
February februari
March mars
April april
May maj
June juni
July juli
August augusti
September september
October oktober
November november
December december
month månad
year år
monthly månatlig / varje månad
yearly årlig
To say “in” a certain month, use i before the month.

Swedish Seasons

Winter vinter in (the) winter på vintern
Spring vår in (the) spring på våren
Summer sommar in (the) summer på sommaren
Fall höst in (the) fall på hösten
You can also use i before the names of the seasons to express this: i vinter = this winter  

Swedish Directions

North norr Northeast nordost
South söder Northwest nordväst
East öster Southeast sydost
West väster Southwest sydväst
left till vänster
right till höger
straight ahead rakt fram

Swedish Personal Pronouns and Verb Conjugation

Swedish Classes

Swedish Personal Pronouns

The personal and possessive pronouns in Swedish are
meaning nominative form object form possessive
I jag mig min/mitt/mina
you (singular) du dig din/ditt/dina
he han honom hans
she hon henne hennes
man sig sig one (indefinite generic third-person)
it (uter) den den dess
it (neuter) det det dess
we vi oss vår/vårt/våra
you (plural) ni er er/ert/era
they de dem deras
(reflexive) sig sin/sitt/sina
(mutual-reflexive) varandra

Swedish Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns

with en words with ett words with plural words
my / mine min mitt mina
your / yours din ditt dina
his / her / its / their sin sitt sina
his / his hans hans hans
her / hers hennes hennes hennes
its / its dess dess dess
our / ours vår vårt våra
your / yours er ert era
their / theirs deras deras deras
The same forms are used for possessive adjectives that are used directly before nouns and for possessive pronouns that replace a noun. For example, this is my car and this is mine would be translated as det här är min bil and det här är min. Sin, sitt and sina can only be used when the third person possessive adjective refers to the subject of the same clause. These words can be translated as his, her, its or their. Generally, if you cannot insert “own” after the possessive adjective in English, you cannot use sin/sitt/sina. Per besöker sin mamma. = Per visits his (own) mother. (Sin refers back to Per.) Eva ringer hans mamma. = Eva calls his mother. (Hans refers to Per, not Eva.)

Conjugating Regular Verbs in Swedish in the Present and Past Tenses

Infinitives in Swedish end in -a. When conjugating verbs, the same form is used for all subject pronouns, whether singular or plural. To form the present tense of verbs, either add -r to the infinitive or remove the -a and add -er.

tala – to speak (-ar verb) and stänga – to close (-er verb)

Present Tense
Past Tense
Present Tense
Past Tense
jag talar I speak jag talade I spoke jag stänger I close jag stängde I closed
du talar you speak du talade you spoke du stänger you close du stängde you closed
han talar he speaks han talade he spoke han stänger he closes han stängde he closed
hon talar she speaks hon talade she spoke hon stänger she closes hon stängde she closed
vi talar we speak vi talade we spoke vi stänger we close vi stängde we closed
ni talar you speak ni talade you spoke ni stänger you close ni stängde you closed
de talar they speak de talade they spoke de stänger they close de stängde they closed
Please note the three present tenses in English (simple, progressive and emphatic) are all translated by one verb form in Swedish. Jag talar can mean I speak, I am speaking or I do speak.

Swedish Verbs to Be & to Have

The present and past tenses of verbs in Swedish are very simple to conjugate. All the forms are the same for each personal pronoun. The infinitive of the verb to be in Swedish is vara, and the conjugated present tense form is är and the past tense is var. The infinitive of the verb to have is ha, and the conjugated present tense form is har and the past tense is hade.
att vara – to be
att ha – to have
I am jag är I was jag var I have jag har I had jag hade
you are du är you were du var you have du har you had du hade
he is han är he was han var he has han har he had han hade
she is hon är she was hon var she has hon har she had hon hade
it is den är it was den var it has den har it had den hade
it is det är it was det var it has det har it had det hade
one is man är one was man var one has man har one had man hade
we are vi är we were vi var we have vi har we had vi hade
you are ni är you were ni var you have ni har you had ni hade
they are de är they were de var they have de har they had de hade

To form the future tense of verbs, just add ska before the infinitive. Jag ska vara = I will be; hon ska ha = she will have; etc

Conjugate “prata” – Swedish conjugation

“prata” conjugation

jag pratar
du pratar
han/hon/den/det pratar
vi pratar
ni pratar
de pratar
jag pratade
du pratade
han/hon/den/det pratade
vi pratade
ni pratade
de pratade
jag har pratat
du har pratat
han/hon/den/det har pratat
vi har pratat
ni har pratat
de har pratat
jag hade pratat
du hade pratat
han/hon/den/det hade pratat
vi hade pratat
ni hade pratat
de hade pratat
jag ska prata; kommer (att) prata
du ska prata; kommer (att) prata
han/hon/den/det ska prata; kommer (att) prata
vi ska prata; kommer (att) prata
ni ska prata; kommer (att) prata
de ska prata; kommer (att) prata
du prata!
ni prata!
Conjugate “vara” – Swedish conjugation

“vara” conjugation

jag är
du är
han/hon/den/det är
vi är
ni är
de är
jag var
du var
han/hon/den/det var
vi var
ni var
de var
jag har varit
du har varit
han/hon/den/det har varit
vi har varit
ni har varit
de har varit

Conjugate “skriva” – Swedish conjugation

“skriva” conjugation

jag skriver
du skriver
han/hon/den/det skriver
vi skriver
ni skriver
de skriver
jag skrev
du skrev
han/hon/den/det skrev
vi skrev
ni skrev
de skrev
jag har skrivit
du har skrivit
han/hon/den/det har skrivit
vi har skrivit
ni har skrivit
de har skrivit

Dutch Grammar



Dutch is a language of Germanic origin and besides The Netherlands and Belgium, it’s also spoken on the Netherlands Antilles, Suriname and many people in Indonesia also speak it (all former colonies of The Netherlands). And in South-Africa, they speak a language derived from Dutch: Afrikaans.

We’ll start by teaching you how to introduce yourself in Dutch. Take a look at the following Dutch sentence and it’s English translation. “Ik ben Robert” “I am Robert” Here we see your very first Dutch sentence where you introduce yourself as Robert, a fictional person. You should of course replace the name with your own name. Although the sentence consists of only three words we are going to carefully examine each word. The first word “Ik” is the Dutch equivalent of the English word “I”, also referred to as 1st person singular. It’s a subject pronoun. The second word “ben” is a verb. It’s a conjugation of the irregular Dutch verb “zijn”, which is the Dutch equivalent of “to be”. Now we’ve seen how to introduce yourself using “ik ben” but we can also introduce other people, take a look at the following examples:
 Ik ben Robert  I am Robert
 Jij bent Robert  You are Robert
 Hij is Robert  He is Robert
 Zij is Roberta  She is Roberta
 Het is Robert  It is Robert
 Wij zijn Robert en Paul  We are Robert and Paul
 Jullie zijn Robert en Paul  You are Robert and Paul
 Zij zijn Robert en Paul  They are Robert and Paul

Articles and Gender

Articles Take a look at these Dutch sentences:
 Hij is een vader  He is a father
 Zij is de moeder  She is the mother
 Het is de stoel  It is the chair
 Het is een stoel  It is a chair
 Het is een huis  It is a house
 Het is het huis  It is the house
It looks pretty logical at the beginning. You’ll quickly notice that “een” is the correct Dutch translation of “a” and “an”. But what’s the correct translation of “the”? You see two different Dutch word for “the”, you see “de” and “het”, but which one is the right one?   Gender Grammar Rules In general, gender is used to distinguish between male and female, sometimes referred to as masculine and feminine. The following examples use gender in different ways and places to demonstrate their behavior.
Grammar + Rules Dutch
my son is a student [masculine + noun] mijn zoon is een student .
her daughter is a student [feminine + noun] haar dochter is een student .
he has a tall brother [adjective + masculine] hij heeft een grote broer .
she has a tall sister [adjective + feminine] ze heeft een grote zus .
his brothers are young [plural masculine + adjective] zijn broers zijn jong .
his sisters are young [plural feminine + adjective] zijn zussen zijn jong .

Hebben – to have

In this lesson we’ll also introduce another irregular Dutch verb, the verb “hebben”, which means “to have”. Take a look at the full conjugation and translation of this verb:
 Ik heb  I have
 Jij hebt  You have
 Hij/Zij/Het heeft  He/she/it has
 Wij hebben  We have
 Jullie hebben  You have
 Zij hebben  They have

Portuguese Verb Conjugations

Imperfect Tense: All Verbs

1. ABRIR : to open
Eu: abria Nós: abríamos
Tu: abrias Vós: abríeis
Ele/Ela: abria Eles/Elas: abriam
2. ADORAR : to love
Eu: adorava Nós: adorávamos
Tu: adoravas Vós: adoráveis
Ele/Ela: adorava Eles/Elas: adoravam
3. ALUGAR : to rent
Eu: alugava Nós: alugávamos
Tu: alugavas Vós: alugáveis
Ele/Ela: alugava Eles/Elas: alugavam
4. APRENDER : to learn
Eu: aprendia Nós: aprendíamos
Tu: aprendias Vós: aprendíeis
Ele/Ela: aprendia Eles/Elas: aprendiam
5. ASSISTIR : to attend or watch
Eu: assistia Nós: assistíamos
Tu: assistias Vós: assistíeis
Ele/Ela: assistia Eles/Elas: assistiam
6. BEBER : to drink
Eu: bebia Nós: bebíamos
Tu: bebias Vós: bebíeis
Ele/Ela: bebia Eles/Elas: bebiam
7. CABER : to fit
Eu: cabia Nós: cabíamos
Tu: cabias Vós: cabíeis
Ele/Ela: cabia Eles/Elas: cabiam
8. CAMINHAR : to walk
Eu: caminhava Nós: caminhávamos
Tu: caminhavas Vós: caminháveis
Ele/Ela: caminhava Eles/Elas: caminhavam
9. CANTAR : to sing
Eu: cantava Nós: cantávamos
Tu: cantavas Vós: cantáveis
Ele/Ela: cantava Eles/Elas: cantavam
10. CHEGAR : to arrive
Eu: chegava Nós: chegávamos
Tu: chegavas Vós: chegáveis
Ele/Ela: chegava Eles/Elas: chegavam
11. COMPRAR : to buy
Eu: comprava Nós: comprávamos
Tu: compravas Vós: compráveis
Ele/Ela: comprava Eles/Elas: compravam
12. CORRER : to run
Eu: corria Nós: corríamos
Tu: corrias Vós: corríeis
Ele/Ela: corria Eles/Elas: corriam
13. CRER : to believe
Eu: cria Nós: críamos
Tu: crias Vós: críeis
Ele/Ela: cria Eles/Elas: criam
14. DANÇAR : to dance
Eu: dançava Nós: dançávamos
Tu: dançavas Vós: dançáveis
Ele/Ela: dançava Eles/Elas: dançavam
15. DAR : to give
Eu: dava Nós: dávamos
Tu: davas Vós: dáveis
Ele/Ela: dava Eles/Elas: davam
16. DECIDIR : to decide
Eu: decidia Nós: decidíamos
Tu: decidias Vós: decidíeis
Ele/Ela: decidia Eles/Elas: decidiam
17. DESCANSAR : to rest
Eu: descansava Nós: descansávamos
Tu: descansavas Vós: descansáveis
Ele/Ela: descansava Eles/Elas: descansavam
18. DEVER : to owe or should
Eu: devia Nós: devíamos
Tu: devias Vós: devíeis
Ele/Ela: devia Eles/Elas: deviam
19. DISCUTIR : to argue or discuss
Eu: discutia Nós: discutíamos
Tu: discutias Vós: discutíeis
Ele/Ela: discutia Eles/Elas: discutiam
20. DIZER : to say
Eu: dizia Nós: dizíamos
Tu: dizias Vós: dizíeis
Ele/Ela: dizia Eles/Elas: diziam
21. EMAGRECER : to lose weight
Eu: emagrecia Nós: emagrecíamos
Tu: emagrecias Vós: emagrecíeis
Ele/Ela: emagrecia Eles/Elas: emagreciam
22. ENGORDAR : to gain weight
Eu: engordava Nós: engordávamos
Tu: engordavas Vós: engordáveis
Ele/Ela: engordava Eles/Elas: engordavam
23. ESCREVER : to write
Eu: escrevia Nós: escrevíamos
Tu: escrevias Vós: escrevíeis
Ele/Ela: escrevia Eles/Elas: escreviam
24. ESCUTAR : to listen
Eu: escutava Nós: escutávamos
Tu: escutavas Vós: escutáveis
Ele/Ela: escutava Eles/Elas: escutavam
25. ESPERAR : to hope or wait
Eu: esperava Nós: esperávamos
Tu: esperavas Vós: esperáveis
Ele/Ela: esperava Eles/Elas: esperavam
26. ESTAR : to be
Eu: estava Nós: estávamos
Tu: estavas Vós: estáveis
Ele/Ela: estava Eles/Elas: estavam
27. ESTUDAR : to study
Eu: estudava Nós: estudávamos
Tu: estudavas Vós: estudáveis
Ele/Ela: estudava Eles/Elas: estudavam
28. FALAR : to speak
Eu: falava Nós: falávamos
Tu: falavas Vós: faláveis
Ele/Ela: falava Eles/Elas: falavam
29. FAZER : to do
Eu: fazia Nós: fazíamos
Tu: fazias Vós: fazíeis
Ele/Ela: fazia Eles/Elas: faziam
30. FICAR : to stay or remain
Eu: ficava Nós: ficávamos
Tu: ficavas Vós: ficáveis
Ele/Ela: ficava Eles/Elas: ficavam
31. GOSTAR : to like
Eu: gostava Nós: gostávamos
Tu: gostavas Vós: gostáveis
Ele/Ela: gostava Eles/Elas: gostavam
32. IR : to go
Eu: ia Nós: íamos
Tu: ias Vós: íeis
Ele/Ela: ia Eles/Elas: iam
33. LAVAR : to wash
Eu: lavava Nós: lavávamos
Tu: lavavas Vós: laváveis
Ele/Ela: lavava Eles/Elas: lavavam
34. LER : to read
Eu: lia Nós: líamos
Tu: lias Vós: líeis
Ele/Ela: lia Eles/Elas: liam
35. LEVAR : to take or carry
Eu: levava Nós: levávamos
Tu: levavas Vós: leváveis
Ele/Ela: levava Eles/Elas: levavam
36. LIMPAR : to clean
Eu: limpava Nós: limpávamos
Tu: limpavas Vós: limpáveis
Ele/Ela: limpava Eles/Elas: limpavam
37. MORAR : to live or reside
Eu: morava Nós: morávamos
Tu: moravas Vós: moráveis
Ele/Ela: morava Eles/Elas: moravam
38. OLHAR : to look
Eu: olhava Nós: olhávamos
Tu: olhavas Vós: olháveis
Ele/Ela: olhava Eles/Elas: olhavam
39. OUVIR : to hear
Eu: ouvia Nós: ouvíamos
Tu: ouvias Vós: ouvíeis
Ele/Ela: ouvia Eles/Elas: ouviam
40. PEDIR : to ask
Eu: pedia Nós: pedíamos
Tu: pedias Vós: pedíeis
Ele/Ela: pedia Eles/Elas: pediam
41. PEGAR : to catch or grab
Eu: pegava Nós: pegávamos
Tu: pegavas Vós: pegáveis
Ele/Ela: pegava Eles/Elas: pegavam
42. PESQUISAR : to investigate
Eu: pesquisava Nós: pesquisávamos
Tu: pesquisavas Vós: pesquisáveis
Ele/Ela: pesquisava Eles/Elas: pesquisavam
43. PODER : to be able to
Eu: podia Nós: podíamos
Tu: podias Vós: podíeis
Ele/Ela: podia Eles/Elas: podiam
44. PRECISAR : to need
Eu: precisava Nós: precisávamos
Tu: precisavas Vós: precisáveis
Ele/Ela: precisava Eles/Elas: precisavam
45. PROCURAR : to look for
Eu: procurava Nós: procurávamos
Tu: procuravas Vós: procuráveis
Ele/Ela: procurava Eles/Elas: procuravam
46. PÔR : to put
Eu: punha Nós: púnhamos
Tu: punhas Vós: púnheis
Ele/Ela: punha Eles/Elas: punham
47. QUERER : to want
Eu: queria Nós: queríamos
Tu: querias Vós: queríeis
Ele/Ela: queria Eles/Elas: queriam
48. RECEBER : to receive
Eu: recebia Nós: recebíamos
Tu: recebias Vós: recebíeis
Ele/Ela: recebia Eles/Elas: recebiam
49. SABER : to know
Eu: sabia Nós: sabíamos
Tu: sabias Vós: sabíeis
Ele/Ela: sabia Eles/Elas: sabiam
50. TER : to have
Eu: tinha Nós: tínhamos
Tu: tinhas Vós: tínheis
Ele/Ela: tinha Eles/Elas: tinham
51. TIRAR : to take or pull out or off
Eu: tirava Nós: tirávamos
Tu: tiravas Vós: tiráveis
Ele/Ela: tirava Eles/Elas: tiravam
52. TOMAR : to take or drink
Eu: tomava Nós: tomávamos
Tu: tomavas Vós: tomáveis
Ele/Ela: tomava Eles/Elas: tomavam
53. TRABALHAR : to work
Eu: trabalhava Nós: trabalhávamos
Tu: trabalhavas Vós: trabalháveis
Ele/Ela: trabalhava Eles/Elas: trabalhavam
54. TRAZER : to bring
Eu: trazia Nós: trazíamos
Tu: trazias Vós: trazíeis
Ele/Ela: trazia Eles/Elas: traziam
55. USAR : to use
Eu: usava Nós: usávamos
Tu: usavas Vós: usáveis
Ele/Ela: usava Eles/Elas: usavam
56. VER : to see
Eu: via Nós: víamos
Tu: vias Vós: víeis
Ele/Ela: via Eles/Elas: viam
57. VIAJAR : to travel
Eu: viajava Nós: viajávamos
Tu: viajavas Vós: viajáveis
Ele/Ela: viajava Eles/Elas: viajavam
58. VIR : to come
Eu: vinha Nós: vínhamos
Tu: vinhas Vós: vínheis
Ele/Ela: vinha Eles/Elas: vinham
59. VIVER : to live
Eu: vivia Nós: vivíamos
Tu: vivias Vós: vivíeis
Ele/Ela: vivia Eles/Elas: viviam
Present Tense: Regular Verbs
1. ABRIR : to open
Eu: abro Nós: abrimos
Tu: abres Vós: abris
Ele/Ela: abre Eles/Elas: abrem
2. ADORAR : to love or to worship
Eu: adoro Nós: adoramos
Tu: adoras Vós: adorais
Ele/Ela: adora Eles/Elas: adoram
3. ALUGAR : to rent
Eu: alugo Nós: alugamos
Tu: alugas Vós: alugais
Ele/Ela: aluga Eles/Elas: alugam
4. APRENDER : to learn
Eu: aprendo Nós: aprendemos
Tu: aprendes Vós: aprendeis
Ele/Ela: aprende Eles/Elas: aprendem
5. ASSISTIR : to attend or watch
Eu: assisto Nós: assistimos
Tu: assistes Vós: assistis
Ele/Ela: assiste Eles/Elas: assistem
6. BEBER : to drink
Eu: bebo Nós: bebemos
Tu: bebes Vós: bebeis
Ele/Ela: bebe Eles/Elas: bebem
7. CAMINHAR : to walk
Eu: caminho Nós: caminhamos
Tu: caminhas Vós: caminhais
Ele/Ela: caminha Eles/Elas: caminham
8. CANTAR : to sing
Eu: canto Nós: cantamos
Tu: cantas Vós: cantais
Ele/Ela: canta Eles/Elas: cantam
9. CHEGAR : to arrive
Eu: chego Nós: chegamos
Tu: chegas Vós: chegais
Ele/Ela: chega Eles/Elas: chegam
10. COMPRAR : to buy
Eu: compro Nós: compramos
Tu: compras Vós: comprais
Ele/Ela: compra Eles/Elas: compram
11. CORRER : to run
Eu: corro Nós: corremos
Tu: corres Vós: correis
Ele/Ela: corre Eles/Elas: correm
12. DANÇAR : to dance
Eu: danço Nós: dançamos
Tu: danças Vós: dançais
Ele/Ela: dança Eles/Elas: dançam
13. DECIDIR : to decide
Eu: decido Nós: decidimos
Tu: decides Vós: decidis
Ele/Ela: decide Eles/Elas: decidem
14. DESCANSAR : to rest
Eu: descanso Nós: descansamos
Tu: descansas Vós: descansais
Ele/Ela: descansa Eles/Elas: descansam
15. DEVER : to owe or should
Eu: devo Nós: devemos
Tu: deves Vós: deveis
Ele/Ela: deve Eles/Elas: devem
16. DISCUTIR : to argue or discuss
Eu: discuto Nós: discutimos
Tu: discutes Vós: discutis
Ele/Ela: discute Eles/Elas: discutem
17. EMAGRECER : to lose weight
Eu: emagreço Nós: emagrecemos
Tu: emagreces Vós: emagreceis
Ele/Ela: emagrece Eles/Elas: emagrecem
18. ENGORDAR : to gain weight
Eu: engordo Nós: engordamos
Tu: engordas Vós: engordais
Ele/Ela: engorda Eles/Elas: engordam
19. ESCREVER : to write
Eu: escrevo Nós: escrevemos
Tu: escreves Vós: escreveis
Ele/Ela: escreve Eles/Elas: escrevem
20. ESCUTAR : to listen
Eu: escuto Nós: escutamos
Tu: escutas Vós: escutais
Ele/Ela: escuta Eles/Elas: escutam
21. ESPERAR : to hope or wait
Eu: espero Nós: esperamos
Tu: esperas Vós: esperais
Ele/Ela: espera Eles/Elas: esperam
22. ESTUDAR : to study
Eu: estudo Nós: estudamos
Tu: estudas Vós: estudais
Ele/Ela: estuda Eles/Elas: estudam
23. FALAR : to speak
Eu: falo Nós: falamos
Tu: falas Vós: falais
Ele/Ela: fala Eles/Elas: falam
24. FICAR : to stay or remain
Eu: fico Nós: ficamos
Tu: ficas Vós: ficais
Ele/Ela: fica Eles/Elas: ficam
25. GOSTAR : to like
Eu: gosto Nós: gostamos
Tu: gostas Vós: gostais
Ele/Ela: gosta Eles/Elas: gostam
26. LAVAR : to wash
Eu: lavo Nós: lavamos
Tu: lavas Vós: lavais
Ele/Ela: lava Eles/Elas: lavam
27. LEVAR : to take or carry
Eu: levo Nós: levamos
Tu: levas Vós: levais
Ele/Ela: leva Eles/Elas: levam
28. LIMPAR : to clean
Eu: limpo Nós: limpamos
Tu: limpas Vós: limpais
Ele/Ela: limpa Eles/Elas: limpam
29. MORAR : to live or reside
Eu: moro Nós: moramos
Tu: moras Vós: morais
Ele/Ela: mora Eles/Elas: moram
30. OLHAR : to look
Eu: olho Nós: olhamos
Tu: olhas Vós: olhais
Ele/Ela: olha Eles/Elas: olham
31. PEGAR : to catch or grab
Eu: pego Nós: pegamos
Tu: pegas Vós: pegais
Ele/Ela: pega Eles/Elas: pegam
32. PESQUISAR : to investigate
Eu: pesquiso Nós: pesquisamos
Tu: pesquisas Vós: pesquisais
Ele/Ela: pesquisa Eles/Elas: pesquisam
33. PRECISAR : to need
Eu: preciso Nós: precisamos
Tu: precisas Vós: precisais
Ele/Ela: precisa Eles/Elas: precisam
34. PROCURAR : to look for
Eu: procuro Nós: procuramos
Tu: procuras Vós: procurais
Ele/Ela: procura Eles/Elas: procuram
35. RECEBER : to receive
Eu: recebo Nós: recebemos
Tu: recebes Vós: recebeis
Ele/Ela: recebe Eles/Elas: recebem
36. TIRAR : to take or pull out or off
Eu: tiro Nós: tiramos
Tu: tiras Vós: tirais
Ele/Ela: tira Eles/Elas: tiram
37. TOMAR : to take or drink
Eu: tomo Nós: tomamos
Tu: tomas Vós: tomais
Ele/Ela: toma Eles/Elas: tomam
38. TRABALHAR : to work
Eu: trabalho Nós: trabalhamos
Tu: trabalhas Vós: trabalhais
Ele/Ela: trabalha Eles/Elas: trabalham
39. USAR : to use
Eu: uso Nós: usamos
Tu: usas Vós: usais
Ele/Ela: usa Eles/Elas: usam
40. VIAJAR : to travel
Eu: viajo Nós: viajamos
Tu: viajas Vós: viajais
Ele/Ela: viaja Eles/Elas: viajam
41. VIVER : to live
Eu: vivo Nós: vivemos
Tu: vives Vós: viveis
Ele/Ela: vive Eles/Elas: vivem
Present Tense Irregular Verbs:
1. CABER : to fit
Eu: caibo Nós: cabemos
Tu: cabes Vós: cabeis
Ele/Ela: cabe Eles/Elas: cabem
2. CRER : to believe
Eu: creio Nós: cremos
Tu: crês Vós: credes
Ele/Ela: crê Eles/Elas: crêem
3. DAR : to give
Eu: dou Nós: damos
Tu: dás Vós: dais
Ele/Ela: Eles/Elas: dão
4. DIZER : to say
Eu: digo Nós: dizemos
Tu: dizes Vós: dizeis
Ele/Ela: diz Eles/Elas: dizem
5. ESTAR : to be
Eu: estou Nós: estamos
Tu: estás Vós: estais
Ele/Ela: está Eles/Elas: estão
6. FAZER : to do
Eu: faço Nós: fazemos
Tu: fazes Vós: fazeis
Ele/Ela: faz Eles/Elas: fazem
7. IR : to go
Eu: vou Nós: vamos
Tu: vais Vós: ides
Ele/Ela: vai Eles/Elas: vão
8. LER : to read
Eu: leio Nós: lemos
Tu: lês Vós: ledes
Ele/Ela: Eles/Elas: lêem
9. OUVIR : to hear
Eu: ouço Nós: ouvimos
Tu: ouves Vós: ouvis
Ele/Ela: ouve Eles/Elas: ouvem
10. PEDIR : to ask
Eu: peço Nós: pedimos
Tu: pedes Vós: pedis
Ele/Ela: pede Eles/Elas: pedem
11. PODER : to be able to
Eu: posso Nós: podemos
Tu: podes Vós: podeis
Ele/Ela: pode Eles/Elas: podem
12. PÔR : to put
Eu: ponho Nós: pomos
Tu: pões Vós: pondes
Ele/Ela: põe Eles/Elas: põem
13. QUERER : to want
Eu: quero Nós: queremos
Tu: queres Vós: quereis
Ele/Ela: quer Eles/Elas: querem
14. SABER : to know
Eu: sei Nós: sabemos
Tu: sabes Vós: sabeis
Ele/Ela: sabe Eles/Elas: sabem
15. SER : to be
Eu: sou Nós: somos
Tu: és Vós: sois
Ele/Ela: é Eles/Elas: são
16. TER : to have
Eu: tenho Nós: temos
Tu: tens Vós: tendes
Ele/Ela: tem Eles/Elas: têm
17. TRAZER : to bring
Eu: trago Nós: trazemos
Tu: trazes Vós: trazeis
Ele/Ela: traz Eles/Elas: trazem
18. VER : to see
Eu: vejo Nós: vemos
Tu: vês Vós: vedes
Ele/Ela: Eles/Elas: vêem
19. VIR : to come
Eu: venho Nós: vimos
Tu: vens Vós: vindes
Ele/Ela: vem Eles/Elas: vêm

German Classes: Articles

German Articles

  • Introduction

    German has three words — der, die and das — for the definite article the. To make matters more confusing for someone learning German, these three definite articles change spelling according to the case of the noun that they appear with in a sentence. The same is true for the indefinite articles. Just as English has two indefinite articles — a and an — that you use with singular nouns, German also has two indefinite articles (in the nominative case): ein for masculine- and neuter-gender words and eine for feminine-gender words. Another similarity with English is that the German indefinite article ein/einedoesn’t have a plural form. Depending on how you’re describing something plural, you may or may not need to use the plural definite article. Consider the following generalized statement, which requires no article: In Zermatt sind Autos verboten. (Cars are forbidden in Zermatt [Switzerland].) The following table shows you the definite articles and the corresponding indefinite articles (nominative case):
    Gender/Number Definite (the) Indefinite (a/an)
    Masculine der ein
    Feminine die eine
    Neuter das ein
    Plural die (no plural form)
    In German language, there are three definite articles for nouns in singular: der for masculine nouns, die for feminine nouns and das neutral nouns. German native speakers know mostly intuitively what the article of each noun is. However, non-native speakers need to memorize the articles. There are several rules and guidelines determining the articles of some categories of nouns. But beware exceptions.
  • Rules for Article ‘Der’
    The following nouns have the article der:
    • Nouns for masculine persons and functions/professions: Vater, Pilot, Arzt;
    • Names of seasons: Frühling, Sommer, Herbst, Winter;
    • Names of months: Januar, Juli, Dezember;
    • Names of days of the week: Montag, Dienstag, Sonntag;
    • Names of compass directions: Nordwest(en), Süd(en);
    • Names of precipitations: Regen, Schnee, Hagel;
    • Names of car brands: Audi, BMW, Mercedes;
    • Names of trains: IC;
    • Nouns derived from verbs without suffix: Gang, Fang;
    The following categories of nouns have mainly the article der:
    • Names of alcoholic beverages: Cognac, Wein, Whiskey; exceptions: das Bier;
    • Names of rivers outside Europe: Amazonas, Mississippi;
    • Names of mountains: Mont Blanc, Kilimanjaro; exception: die Zugspitze;
    Furthermore, nouns with the suffixes below have the article der:
    • –er (nouns derived from verbs): Fahrer, Lehrer;
    • –ismus: Kapitalismus, Journalismus;
    Most of nouns with the following suffixes have the article der:
    • –ant: Demonstrant, Elefant; exceptions: das Croissant, das Restaurant;
    • –ling: Lehrling, Schützling; exceptions: das Dribbling, das Bowling;
    • –ner: Rentner, Schaffner, Zöllner; exceptions: das Banner, die Wiener (Wurst);
    • –or: Motor, Traktor; exceptions: das Gegentor, das Chlor;

    Beware: this is applicable only to nouns in singular. All nouns in plural have the article die.

    Beware: diminutives have always the article das: der Kopfdas Köpfchen.

    Rules for Article ‘Die’

    The following nouns have the article die:
    • Nouns for feminine persons and functions/professions: Mutter, Friseuse, Ärztin;
    • Names of motorcycle brands: Harley Davidson, BMW (only motorcycle), Yamaha;
    • Names of planes and ships: Boeing 747, Titanic;
    • Cardinal numbers: Eins, Drei;
    The following categories of nouns have mainly the article die:
    • Names of plants and trees: Birke, Chrysantheme, Rose; exceptions: der Ahorn, das Veilchen;
    Furthermore, nouns with the suffixes below have the article die:
    • –falt: Vielfalt;
    • –heit: Freiheit, Sicherheit;
    • –keit: Möglichkeit, Schnelligkeit;
    • –schaft: Freundschaft, Mannschaft;
    • –t (nouns derived from verbs): Fahrt, Tat;
    • –ung: Leitung, Zeitung;
    Foreign nouns with the suffixes below have the article die:
    • –ade: Hitparade, Marmelade;
    • –age: Garage, Passage;
    • –anz: Eleganz, Dominanz;
    • –enz: Existenz, Tendenz;
    • –ik: Kritik, Musik;
    • –ion: Diskussion, Koalition;
    • –tät: Identität, Qualität;
    • –ur: Agentur, Reparatur;
    Most of nouns with the following suffixes have the article die:
    • –e: Grenze, Lampe; exceptions: der Junge, der Friede;
    • –ei: Abtei, Metzgerei; exceptions: das Ei, der Papagei;
    • –ie: Diplomatie, Psychologie; exceptions: der Junkie, der Hippie;
    • –in: Ärztin, Studentin; exceptions: das Benzin, der Harlekin;

    Beware: diminutives have always the article das: die Handdas Händchen.

  • Rules for Article ‘Das’
    The following nouns have the article das:
    • Diminutives (–chen, –lein): Kaninchen, Fräulein;
    • Nouns derived from infinitives: Essen, Schreiben;
    • Nouns derived from adjectives: Gute, Böse;
    • Names of colors: Rot, Gelb, Blau;
    The following categories of nouns have mainly the article das:
    • Almost all of the 112 known chemical elements: Aluminium, Kupfer, Uran; 6 exceptions: der Kohlenstoff, der Sauerstoff, der Stickstoff, der Wasserstoff, der Phosphor, der Schwefel;
    • Names of metals: Blei, Messing, Zinn; exceptions: die Bronze, der Stahl;
    • Fractions: Drittel (⅓), Viertel (¼); exception: die Hälfte (½);
    Furthermore, nouns with the suffixes below have the article das:
    • –ial: Material, Potenzial;
    Most of nouns with the following suffixes have the article das:
    • –ment: Instrument, Parlament; exceptions: der Konsument, der Zement;
    • –nis: Ergebnis, Tennis; exceptions: die Fahrerlaubnis, die Wildnis;
    • –o: Auto, Konto; exceptions: die Avocado, der Euro;
    • –tum: Quantum, Ultimatum; exceptions: der Reichtum, der Irrtum;
    • –um (nouns of Latin origin): Publikum, Museum, Stadium;

    Beware: this is applicable only to nouns in singular. All nouns in plural have the article die.

German Definite Articles by Gender (Nominative Case)
German Definite Article (English meaning) Gender (Abbreviation Seen in Dictionaries) German Example (English meaning)
der (the) masculine (m) der Löffel (the spoon)
die (the) feminine (f) die Gabel (the fork)
das (the) neuter (n or nt) das Messer (the knife)
die (the) plural (pl) die Menschen (the people)
Some categories of nouns are consistently masculine, feminine, or neuter. For instance, noun gender usually follows the gender of people: der Onkel (the uncle) and die Schwester (the sister). In many other cases, the noun categories have to do with the ending of the noun. The following two tables provide some fairly reliable categories of nouns and their genders.
Common Genders by Noun Ending (Or Beginning)
Usually Masculine (der) Usually Feminine (die) Usually Neuter (das)
-er (especially when referring to male people/jobs) -ade, -age, -anz, -enz, -ette, -ine, -ion, -tur (if foreign/borrowed from another language) -chen
-ich -e -ium
-ismus -ei -lein
-ist -heit -ment (if foreign/borrowed from another language)
-ner -ie -o
-ik -tum or -um
-in (when referring to female people/occupations) Ge-
Common Genders by Noun Subject
Usually Masculine (der) Usually Feminine (die) Usually Neuter (das)
Days, months, and seasons: der Freitag(Friday) Many flowers: die Rose (the rose) Colors (adjectives) used as nouns: grün (green) das Grün (the green)
Map locations: der Süd(en) (the south) Many trees: die Buche (the beech) Geographic place names: das Europa(Europe)
Names of cars and trains: der Audi (the Audi) and der ICE(the Intercity Express) Names of aircraft and ships: die Boeing 767 (the Boeing 767), die Titanic (the Titanic) Infinitives used as nouns (gerunds): schwimmen(to swim) das Schwimmen(swimming)
Nationalities and words showing citizenship: der Amerikaner (the American) Cardinal numbers:eine Drei (a three) Young people and animals: das Baby (the baby)
Occupations: der Arzt(the doctor) Almost all the chemical elements and most metals: das Aluminium(aluminum) and das Blei(lead)
Names of most mountains and lakes:der Großglockner(the highest mountain in Austria)
Most rivers outside of Europe: der Amazonas (the Amazon)
Bestimmter Artikel I (Nominativ & Akkusativ) Singular
Nominativ Akkusativ
MASKULIN der (Tisch) den (Tisch)
FEMININ die (Schule) die (Schule)
NEUTRUM das (Kleid) das (Kleid)
Nominativ Akkusativ
MASKULIN die (Tische) die (Tische)
FEMININ die (Schulen) die (Schulen)
NEUTRUM die (Kleider) die (Kleider)
Unbestimmter Artikel I (Nominativ & Akkusativ Singular
Nominativ Akkusativ
MASKULIN ein (Tisch) einen (Tisch)
FEMININ eine (Schule) eine (Schule)
NEUTRUM ein (Kleid) ein (Kleid)
Nominativ Akkusativ
MASKULIN  (Tische)  (Tische)
FEMININ  (Schulen)  (Schulen)
NEUTRUM  (Kleider)  (Kleider)

German Definite Articles

The definite articles in German refer to specific persons, objects, ideas…etc. and they are : der, die, das, die (plural) they all mean the expression “the” in English, der is used for masculine nouns, die is used for feminine nouns, das is used for neuter nouns, and finally die used also for plural nouns.
German Definite Article
Masculine der Mann (the man)
Feminine die Frau (the woman)
Neuter das Brot (the bread)
Plural die Männer (the men), die Frauen (the women), die Brote (the breads)
Well, that’s not all; the form we went through above is only for the nominative case. Now let’s have a look at all the rest:
German Definite Articles
masculine feminine neuter plural
Nominative case der die das die the
Accusative case den die das die the
Dative case dem der dem den to the
Genitive cases des der des der of the
Here are some examples: Nominative: der Mann ist hier (the man is here) Accusative: Ich grüße den Mann (I greet the man) Dative: Ich gebe dem Mann ein Buch (I give the book to the man) Genitive: Ich habe das Buch des Mannes (I have the book of the man) You may have noticed how the definite article changes each time the case changes. So try to memorize the table above by heart, I’m sure it’s not that hard.]]>

Italian Classroom: Articles


Italian Grammar Lessons: Definite and Indefinite articles

Basic articles:
Masculine singular: il
Masculine plural: i
Feminine singular: la
Feminine plural: le
Articles can be definite or indefinite, it depends if they refer to a known object or not and they can help you identify the gender (masculine/feminine) and number (singular/plural) of the nouns they refer to, as they change depending on that. DEFINITE ARTICLES Use articles il (singular) and i (plural) for masculine nouns that start with a consonant. Examples: il libro / i libri (the book / the books) il gatto / i gatti (the cat / the cats) Words that begin with x, y, z and with the groups gn, pn, ps, s + consonant need the articles lo (singular) and gli (plural)  Examples: lo zio / gli zii (the uncle / the uncles) lo gnomo / gli gnomi (the dwarf / the dwarfs) lo psicologo / gli psicologi (the psychologist / the psychologists) lo specchio, lo studente, gli spaghetti For feminine nouns, use la (singular) and le (plural) for all the nouns (without distinction with regard to the first letters.) Examples: la matita / le matite (the pencil / the pencils) la casa / le case (the house / the houses) For both the masculine and feminine gender, you need to be careful with singular nouns which start with a vowel, as the article is elided and written with an apostrophe: lo/la → l’ Examples: masculine nouns: l’ errore / gli errori (the mistake / the mistakes) feminie nouns: l’ aula / le aule (the classroom / the classrooms) INDEFINITE ARTICLES Unlike with definite articles, the indefinite article is only used with singular nouns and so only changes according to the gender. The article un is used with masculine nouns starting with a vowel or a consonant Examples: un aereo (an airplane) un treno (a train) However, with words starting with x, y, z and the groups gn, pn, ps, sc you have to use the articleuno. Examples: uno zaino (a backpack) uno scoiattolo (a squirrel) The article una is used for feminine singular nouns starting with a consonant. Examples: una palla (a ball) una scena (a scene) As before, the indefinite feminine form also needs to be elided when followed by a word starting with a vowel: una → un’ Examples: un’ isola (an island) un’ automobile (a car)
In Italian, the definite article must always be used before the name of a language, except when the verbs parlare (to speak) or studiare (to study) directly precede the name of the language; in those cases, the use of the article is optional. Studio l’italiano. (I study Italian.) Parlo italiano. (I speak Italian.) Parlo bene l’italiano. (I speak Italian well.) The definite article is used before the days of the week to indicate a repeated, habitual activity. Domenica studio. (I’m studying on Sunday.) Marco non studia mai la domenica. (Marco never studies on Sundays.)        ]]>

Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives in Italian

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES IN ITALIAN Possessive pronouns and adjectives are used in both English and Italian to indicate the ownership of a noun. Possessive pronouns express a relation between a noun and who possesses it, and are used alone, in the place of the noun. The six possessive pronouns in Italian all refer to a person/people. Possessive adjectives in Italian correspond to the English words “my,” “your,” “its,” “his,” “her,” “their” and “our.” Both possessive pronouns and adjectives and generally used in compound forms with the pronoun or adjective coming after a definite article that is not translated in English (ie: “il mio” = “my”). It is important to remember that both possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives must agree in both number and gender to the noun not with the possessor. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES IN ITALIAN Possessive pronouns and adjectives are used in both English and Italian to indicate the ownership of a noun. Possessive pronouns express a relation between a noun and who possesses it, and are used alone, in the place of the noun. The six possessive pronouns in Italian all refer to a person/people. Possessive adjectives in Italian correspond to the English words “my,” “your,” “its,” “his,” “her,” “their” and “our.” Both possessive pronouns and adjectives and generally used in compound forms with the pronoun or adjective coming after a definite article that is not translated in English (ie: “il mio” = “my”). It is important to remember that both possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives must agree in both number and gender to the noun not with the possessor.     THE SIX POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Mio = mine Tuo = yours Suo = theirs Nostro = ours Vostro = yours (polite) Loro = theirs (plural, third person) Example: “La scarpa di Vanessa è molto grande, la mia è più piccola.” = “Vanessa’s shoe is very big, mine is smaller.” You will notice that “la mia” replaces “la scarpa,” denoting that the shoe belongs to me. It is important to remember that in Italian, unlike English, the gender of the possessive pronoun corresponds to the subject/noun not the possessor. For example, when saying “Today is your birthday” you would say “Oggi è il tuo compleanno.” Compleanno is masculine singular so “il tuo” is used regardless of whether the person celebrating the birthday is male or female. EXAMPLES OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES My = il mio, la mia, i miei, le mie (masculine singular, feminine singular, masculine plural, feminine plural) Your (familiar) = il tuo, la tua, i tuoi, le tue Your (polite) = il suo, la sua, i suoi, le sue His, Her’s, Its = il suo, la sua, i suoi (masculine plural), le sue (feminine plural) Our = il nosto, la nostra, i nostri, le nostre Your (familiar) = il vostro, la vostra, i vostri, le vostre Your (polite) = il loro, la loro, i loro, le loro Their = il loro, la loro, i loro, le loro Example: “I miei cugini” = “My cousins” also  “La loro casa” = “Their house.” Note that in the last example we use the third person feminine singular (la loro) based on the fact that the noun (“casa”) is both feminine and singular (ie: we are only speaking of one house). The choice of adjective does not depend on whether the group that owns the house is male or female. One exception to the rule of using an article before the adjective is when the noun is a specific family relative. For example, if you are trying to say “My sister is blonde” you would say, “Mia sorella è bionda” not “La mia sorella è bionda.” DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Some examples to help clarify the difference between possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives: La tua casa è sfarzosa, la mia è modesta = Your house is opulent, mine is modest. (pronoun = la mia) La mia casa è modesta =  My house is modest. (adjective = la mia) Tua sorella è bionda, la mia è mora = Your sister is blonde, mine is a brunette. (pronoun = la mia) Mia sorella è alta = My sister is tall. (adjective = la mia) Lei vorrebbe una macchina tutta sua = She would like a car all her own (pronoun = sua) So, adjectives are possessive when they are paired with a noun (ie: la MIA casa; la TUA bicicletta, il MIO gatto, la VOSTRA penna = my house, your bike, my cat, your pen), while pronouns are possessive, even when the noun does not appear, because the pronoun can substitute it (ie: La macchina di Paola è blu, la mia invece è bianca = Paola’s car is blue, mine is white.) Also, in Italian we place ALWAYS the article before the pronoun.  ]]>

Scroll to Top