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Spanish Verb Conjugation in the Present Tense

Spanish Verb Conjugation in the Present Tense

The most common set of verbs in Spanish and perhaps the most important set of verbs that need to be learned first is the present indicative tense. Although there are conjugations that are easier to learn, the present indicative tense is used the most. Native English speakers conjugate regular verbs all the time without thinking about it, for the past tense add a “d” or “ed” to the end of a verb, and for the present tense, add an “s” or “es” to indicate a person or thing is performing an action.


The conjugation of Spanish verbs is a little trickier than in English. A speaker needs to consider several different tenses, moods, gender and agreement in person according to what needs to be conveyed in the sentence. Spanish verb endings can indicate when the action occurs, and also give the listener a better idea of who or what is performing the action. The present tense means that the action is occurring now. The indicative mood means that the sentence is a statement of fact. To conjugate a verb in the present indicative, remove the infinitive ending of the regular verb, in this case -ar-er or -ir, and replace it with an ending that gives an indication as to “the person” that is performing the action of the verb.


In English and in Spanish, the infinitive form of the verb is the base verb, the standard form of the verb. In the case of English, “to speak,” is the infinitive form of the action of speaking.

The Spanish translation of “to speak,” is hablarHablar is a regular verb in Spanish, which means its endings can change in a predictive pattern according to tense, person and mood.

For example, hablar is the infinitive of a common regular verb ending in -ar. Remove the -ar, which leaves the stem of the verb habl-.

If the person “speaking” in the sentence is in the first person, that would mean the sentence would be conjugated to be “I speak.” In Spanish, when conjugating or changing the stem into a first-person verb, take the stem and add -o, forming the word hablo. “I speak” is Yo hablo.

To say “you speak,” which is the singular, informal, second person, add -as to the stem, forming the word hablas. “You speak” is Tu hablas. The endings are slightly different for verbs that end in -er and -ir, but the principle is the same. Remove the infinitive ending, then add the appropriate ending to the remaining stem.


Person -Ar Ending Example: Hablar Translation: To Speak
yo -o hablo I speak
-as hablas you (informal) speak
élellausted -a habla he/she speak, you (formal) speak
nosotrosnosotras -amos hablamos we speak
vosotrosvosotras -áis habláis you speak (informal)
ellosellasustedes -an hablan they speak, you (formal) speak


Person -Er Ending Example: Aprender Translation: To Learn
yo -o aprendo I learn
tú  -es aprendes you (informal) learn
élellausted -e aprende he/she learns, you (formal) learn
nosotros, nosotras  -emos aprendemos we learn
vosotrosvosotras -éis aprendéis you learn (informal)
ellos, ellasustedes -en aprenden they learn, you (formal) learn


Person -Ir Ending Example: Vivir Translation: To Live
yo -o vivo I live
tú  -es vives you (informal) live
élellausted -e vive he/she lives, you (formal) live
nosotros, nosotras  -imos vivimos we live
vosotrosvosotras -ís vivis you live (informal)
ellos, ellasustedes -en viven they live, you (formal) live


Although most verbs conjugate regularly, the most common verbs in Spanish usually do not. This is similar to English, where the most common verbs such as “to be” and “to go” are also irregular verbs.


Infinitive Translation Conjugations
dar to give yo doy, tú das, usted/él/ella da, nosotros/nosotras damos, vosotros/vosotras dais, ustedes/ellos/ellas dan
estar to be yo estoy, tú estás, usted/él/ella está, nosotros/nosotras estamos, vosotros/vosotras estáis, ustedes/ellos/ellas están
hacer to make yo hago, tú haces, usted/él/ella hace, nosotros/nosotras hacemos, vosotros/vosotras hacéis, ustedes/ellos/ellas hacen
ir to go yo voy, tú vas, usted/él/ella va, nosotros/nosotras vamos, vosotros/vosotras vais, ustedes/ellos/ellas van
poder to be able to yo puedo, tú puedes, usted/él/ella puedes, nosotros/nosotras podemos, vosotros/vosotras podéis, ustedes/ellos/ellas pueden
ser to be yo soy, tú eres, usted/él/ella es, nosotros/nosotras somos, vosotros/vosotras sois, ustedes/ellos/ellas son
tener to have yo tengo, tú tienes, usted/él/ella tiene, nosotros/nosotras tenemos, vosotros/vosotras tenéis, ustedes/ellos/ellas tienen

Spanish Classroom: Basic Spanish

Learn Spanish at the best Spanish Language centre  in Coimbatore. Starting from the basics the Spanish language course takes the students to the higher leves of leaning.

Basic Spanish Phrases

¡Buenos días! bway-nohs dee-ahs Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas tardes! bway-nahs tard-ays Good afternoon! ¡Buenas noches! bway-nahs noh-chays Good evening! / Good night!
¡Hola! / ¡Chao! oh-lah / chow Hi! / Bye! Adiós. ah-dee-ohs Good bye. Por favor. por fah-bor Please.
Hasta la vista / Hasta luego. ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go See you / See you later. Hasta pronto. ah-stah prohn-toh See you soon. Hasta mañana. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you tomorrow.
(Muchas) Gracias. (moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs  Thank you (very much). De nada. day nah-dah You’re welcome. Bienvenidos byen-veh-nee-dohs Welcome
Lo siento loh see-ehn-toh I’m sorry Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehr-dohn / dees-kool-peh Excuse me / Pardon me ¡Vamos! bah-mohs Let’s go!
¿Cómo está usted? koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted How are you? (formal) ¿Cómo estás? koh-moh ay-stahs  How are you? (informal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl  How’s it going?
Bien / Muy bien bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn  Good / Very good Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Bad / Very bad / OK Sí / No see / noh Yes / No
¿Cómo se llama usted? koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted What is your name? (formal) ¿Cómo te llamas? koh-moh tay yah-mahs  What is your name? (informal) Me llamo…  / Mi nombre es… may yah-moh  / mee nohm-breh ess My name is…
Mucho gusto. / Encantado. moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahn-tah-doh Nice to meet you. Igualmente. ee-guahl-mehn-tay Same here. / Same to you. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah Mister / Mrs. / Miss
¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ehs oo-sted  Where are you from? (formal) ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day eh-rehs  Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de… yoh soy day  I’m from…
¿Cuántos años tiene usted? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted  How old are you? (formal) ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays  How old are you? (informal) Yo tengo _____ años. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs  I am _____ years old.
¿Habla usted español? ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol Do you speak Spanish? (formal) ¿Hablas inglés? ah-blahs een-glehs Do you speak English? (informal) (No) Hablo… noh ah-bloh I (don’t) speak…
¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes? ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyen-dehs Do you understand? (formal / informal) (No) Entiendo. noh ehn-tyen-doh I (don’t) understand. Yo (no lo) sé. yoh noh loh seh I (don’t) know.
¿Puede ayudarme? pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh Can you help me? (formal) Claro / Claro que sí klah-roh / klah-roh keh see Sure / Of course ¿Cómo? koh-moh What? Pardon me?
¿Dónde está / Dónde están… ? dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh eh-stahn Where is … / Where are … ? Aquí / Ahí ah-kee / ah-ee Here / There Hay / Había… eye / ah-bee-ah There is / are… / There was / were…
¿Cómo se dice ____ en español? koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en eh-spahn-yol How do you say ____ in Spanish? ¿Qué es esto? keh ehs ehs-toh What is that? ¿Qué te pasa? keh teh pah-sah What’s the matter (with you)?
No importa. noh eem-por-tah It doesn’t matter. ¿Qué pasa? keh pah-sah What’s happening? Sin novedad. seen noh-veh-dahd Nothing much.
No tengo ninguna idea. noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah ee-deh-ah I have no idea. ¡Buena idea! bweh-nah ee-deh-ah Good idea! ¡Pase! pah-seh Go ahead!
Estoy cansado / enfermo. eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehr-moh I’m tired / sick. Tengo hambre / sed. tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed I’m hungry / thirsty. Tengo calor / frío. tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh I’m hot / cold.
Estoy aburrido. eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh I’m bored. No me importa. noh meh eem-por-tah I don’t care. No se preocupe. noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh Don’t worry
Está bien. ehs-tah bee-ehn That’s alright. / It’s ok. Me olvidé. meh ohl-vee-deh I forgot. Tengo que ir ahora. tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah I must go now.
¿Listo? lees-toh Ready? Quizás / Depende. kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh Maybe / It depends. Todavía no. toh-dah-vee-ah noh Not yet.
¡Qué chistoso! keh chees-toh-soh How funny! ¡Que le vaya bien! keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn Have a nice day! ¡Nos vemos! nohs veh-mos We’ll see you!
¡Salud! sah-lood Bless you! ¡Felicitaciones! feh-lee-see-tah-see-oh-nehs Congratulations! ¡Buena suerte! bweh-nah swehr-teh Good luck!
Te toca a ti. teh toh-kah ah tee It’s your turn. (informal) ¡Callate! kah-yah-teh Shut up! Te amo. tay ah-moh  I love you. (informal and singular)
Spanish Classes in Coimbatore
  1. Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. This is because there is more than one meaning to “you” in Spanish (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.)
  2. Encantado, cansado, enfermo, and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman, then the final o changes to a: encantada, cansada, enferma, and aburrida
  3. In Spain, as well as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Spanish language is called castellano instead of español.
  4. Por favor is often shortened to just porfa. Porfis can also be used (at least in Mexico) to mean pretty please.
  5. Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries, there are several regional dialects and accents so pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. This tutorial is mostly concerned with the standardized varieties that are spoken in Mexico and northern/central Spain, but will also include common variants from other countries and/or regions. (The southern region of Spain, Andalucía, and the Canary Islands, exhibit features that are closer to Latin American Spanish.)

Spanish Subject Pronouns

singular plural
first person yo yoh I nosotros nosotras noh-soh-trohs noh-soh-trahs we
second person vos too bohs you (informal) vosotros vosotras boh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trahs you (informal)
third person él ella usted ail ay-yah oo-sted he / it she / it you (formal) ellos ellas ustedes ay-yohs ay-yahs oo-sted-ays they (masculine) they (feminine) you (informal / formal)
latin american spanish
  1. The various pronouns meaning you can be tricky to use correctly in Spanish. The informal forms are used to show familiarity with other people, while the formal forms indicate social distance. There are many factors that determine the familiarity or formality, such as gender, age, location, social class, etc. In general, informal you is used with family members, friends, children, animals, etc. while formal you is reserved for those to whom you wish to show respect. These rules are not steadfast though, and there is a lot of variation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. For example, usted is used among family members in Colombia, whereas most other Spanish speakers would use or vos. It is best simply to listen to which pronoun is used in the variety of Spanish that you are most interested in learning to figure out when to use each one.
  2. The use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, either in addition to or in place of , is called voseo. Old Spanish used this pronoun in addition to , but it became somewhat stigmatized when the standardized language of Spain stopped using it. Various regions of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela use both and vos, while Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay (known together as the Río de la Plata region) and most of Central America use vos in place of . Although voseo rarely appears in Spanish textbooks, it is used in some form by a majority (about two-thirds) of the Spanish-speaking population.
  3. Because every noun in Spanish has a gender, there are two ways to express it. If the noun is masculine, use él, which also means he. If the noun is feminine, use ella, which also means she.
Spanish Classes
  1. Vosotros is the plural form of in northern and central Spain only, for informal you. Ustedes is the plural form of usted for formal you. Since vosotros is not used in the rest of the Spanish-speaking countries, Ustedes is both informal and formal plural you in these countries.
  2. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. or Vd. (from the phrase vuestra merced). Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. or Vds.
  3. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as does ellas. If there is a group of people that is mixed (both male and female), use the masculine forms: nosotros, vosotros and ellos.
  4. Subject pronouns are often only used for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity when the verb conjugation is the same for different people (such as él and usted.)

Spanish Nouns, Articles, Demonstratives

Masc. Singular Fem. Singular Masc. Plural Fem. Plural
the el la the los las
a, an un una some unos unas
this este esta these estos estas
that ese esa those esos esas
that aquel aquella those aquellos aquellas
Speak spanish like a native El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.  Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine, with a few exceptions: la mano (hand), la foto (photo). Words that end in -a are generally feminine, with a few exceptions: el mapa(map), el problema (problem). Other feminine words end in -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud. Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.  Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.  Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.  They can be used in general and abstract ways. Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun; if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns, which are used before a verb, add an accent on all of the first e’s: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas, ése, ésa, ésos, ésas, aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas.

Formation of Plural Nouns

  1. If a singular noun ends in a vowel, just add -s to make it plural: la casa → las casas
  2. If a singular noun ends in a consonant, a vowel with an accent, or y, add -es to make it plural: el papel → los papeles
  3. Singular nouns that end in -z change the z to c and add -es to form the plural: la luz → las luces
  4. A few nouns that have an accent in the singular will lose it in the plural and vice versa: la canción → las canciones, el examen → los exámenes (but notice that there is no change for el lápiz → los lápices)

Spanish Verbs Be and Have

ser – to be
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) soy I am fui era I was seré I will be
(tú / vos) eres / sos you are fuiste eras you were serás you will be
(él / ella) (usted) es es he / she / it is you are fue fue era era he / she / it was you were será será he / she / it will be you will be
(nosotros / -as) somos we are fuimos éramos we were seremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) sois you are fuisteis erais you were seréis you will be
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) son son they are you are fueron fueron eran eran they were you were serán serán they will be you will be
estar – to be
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) estoy I am estuve estaba I was estaré I will be
(tú / vos) estás you are estuviste estabas you were estarás you will be
(él / ella) (usted) está está he / she / it is you are estuvo estuvo estaba estaba he / she / it was you were estará estará he / she / it will be you will be
(nosotros / -as) estamos we are estuvimos estábamos we were estaremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) estáis you are estuvisteis estabais you were estaréis you will be
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) están están they are you are estuvieron estuvieron estaban estaban they were you were estarán estarán they will be you will be
tener – to have
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) tengo I have tuve tenía I had tendré I will have
(tú / vos) tienes / tenés you have tuviste tenías you had tendrás you will have
(él / ella) (usted) tiene tiene he / she / it has you have tuvo tuvo tenía tenía he / she / it had you had tendrá tendrá he / she / it will have you will have
(nosotros / -as) tenemos we have tuvimos teníamos we had tendremos we will have
(vosotros / -as) tenéis you have tuvisteis teníais you had tendréis you will have
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) tienen tienen they have you have tuvieron tuvieron tenían tenían they had you had tendrán tendrán they will have you will have
Highlighted forms are only used in northern/central Spain. You do not need to use the subject pronouns unless you want to emphasize the person, or to avoid ambiguity. european spanish The conjugation for vos is usually only different from the conjugation in the present tense and the imperative (commands), though there can be differences in the preterite and subjunctive as well. Sometimes the present tense conjugation is identical to the tú conjugation (in which case, there will only be one form given in the conjugation charts). For the present tense conjugation of ser, in some regions of Chile, Colombia, and Cuba the vos conjugation is soi, whereas in some parts of Panama and Venezuela it is sois. A final -s may or may not be used for the vos conjugation in the preterite tense. There is a lot of variation in the vos conjugations, in addition to the use of the pronoun tú with a vos conjugation or the pronoun vos with a tú conjugation. Voseo is usually associated with Argentina but there are many more places in Latin America that use vos in some form so it is important to be aware of it. The difference between the preterite and imperfect tenses will be explained in Spanish II. In general, the preterite expresses a completed action in the past while the imperfect expresses a repeated or continuing action in the past. For now, just learn the forms for recognition purposes. Ser is used to identify or describe.  It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin.  Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.

Uses of Ser

Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo. La casa es grande. Carlos es pobre. Es carpintero. Son las tres. Los libros son de Juan. Es necesario. El teléfono fue inventado por Bell. The building is a temple. The house is large. Charles is poor. He is a carpenter. It’s three o’clock. The books are John’s. It is necessary. The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar

Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. La ventana está abierta. Juan está enfermo. Miguel está estudiando. The book is on the table. The window is open. John is sick. Michael is studying.
lessons in spanish Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring, while estar aburrido means to be bored. Others include: ser bueno – to be nice, estar bueno – to be in good health; ser callado – to be discrete, estar callado – to be silent; ser moreno – to have brown hair, estar moreno – to be tan.

Many common expressions using the verb “be” in English use the verb “tener” in Spanish (but not all):

to be afraid tener miedo to be in a hurry tener prisa, estar de prisa
to be against estar en contra to be jealous tener celos
to be at fault tener la culpa to be lucky tener suerte
to be careful tener cuidado to be patient tener paciencia
to be cold tener frío to be sleepy tener sueño
to be curious ser curioso/a to be successful tener éxito
to be fed up estar harto/a to be thirsty tener sed
to be happy estar contento/a to be tired estar cansado/a
to be hot tener calor to be ___ years old tener ___ años
to be hungry tener hambre
Tener is also used with the following expressions that use “have” in English: No tengo ni idea. I have no idea. ¿Tienes un resfriado? Do you have a cold? Tengo que irme. I have to go.

Spanish Question Words

what qué which cuál(es)
who quién(es) how much cuánto (-a)
how cómo how many cuántos (-as)
when cuándo whom a quién(es)
where dónde whose de quién(es)
why por qué

Spanish Days

Monday lunes loo-nays
Tuesday martes mar-tays
Wednesday miércoles mee-air-coh-lays
Thursday jueves hway-bays
Friday viernes bee-air-nays
Saturday sábado sah-bah-doh
Sunday domingo doh-ming-oh
day el día dee-ah
week la semana say-mahn-ah
weekend el fin de semana feen day say-mahn-ah
today hoy oy
tonight esta noche es-tah noh-chay
last night anoche ah-noh-chay
yesterday ayer eye-yair
tomorrow mañana mahn-yahn-ah
my birthday mi cumpleaños mee coom-play-ahn-yohs
next próximo / próxima prok-see-moh / mah
last pasado / pasada pah-sah-doh / dah
day before yesterday anteayer ahn-teh-eye-yair
day after tomorrow pasado mañana pah-sah-doh mahn-yahn-ah
the following day el día siguiente dee-ah see-gwee-ehn-teh
the day before la víspera vees-peh-rah

Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. The definite article is not used after the verb ser, but at all other times it is required and there is slight change in meaning if it is singular or plural: el lunes = on Monday but los lunes = on Mondays

Spanish Months of the Year

January enero ay-nair-oh
February febrero fay-bray-roh
March marzo mar-soh
April abril ah-breel
May mayo mi-oh
June junio hoo-nee-oh
July julio hoo-lee-oh
August agosto ah-gohs-toh
September septiembre sayp-tee-aim-bray
October octubre ohk-too-bray
November noviembre noh-bee-aim-bray
December diciembre dee-see-aim-bray
month el mes mais
first of [a month] el primero de [month] pree-mair-oh day _____
year el año ahn-yoh
decade la década deh-kah-dah
century el siglo see-gloh
millennium el milenio mee-leh-nee-oh
Best Spanish language Centre The preposition en is used with months: en abril = in April. Also notice that primero is used for the first of the month, but the rest of the days are referred to using the regular cardinal numbers: el primero de junio but el dos de julio. Months of the year are also all masculine and not capitalized in writing. ¿Cual es la fecha de hoy? What is today’s date? Hoy es el primero de agosto. Today is August 1st.

Spanish Seasons

spring la primavera in spring en primavera
summer el verano in summer en verano
winter el invierno in winter en invierno
autumn el otoño in autumn en otoño

Spanish Directions

to the right a la derecha
to the left a la izquierda
straight ahead todo derecho
north el norte northeast el noreste
south el sur northwest el noroeste
east el este southeast el sureste
west el oeste southwest el suroeste

Spanish Colors and Shapes

red rojo / roja circle el círculo 
pink rosado / rosada square el cuadrado
orange anaranjado / anaranjada rectangle el rectángulo
yellow amarillo / amarilla triangle el triángulo
green verde oval el óvalo
blue azul cube el cubo
light blue celeste sphere la esfera
purple morado / morada cylinder el cilindro
violet violeta cone el cono
brown marrón octagon el octágono
black negro / negra box la caja
gray gris pyramid la pirámide
white blanco / blanca
golden dorado / dorada dark oscuro / oscura
silver plateado / plateada light claro / clara

All adjectives in Spanish are placed after the noun that they describe and they agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun. Notice that some colors do not change for gender (marrón) or number (gris). To change an adjective to the feminine form, you usually just change the final -o to -a. To make an adjective plural, simply add an -s.

a red house = una casa roja

Spanish Time

¿Qué hora es? What time is it?
Es la una. It’s one.
Son las dos/tres/cuatro… It’s two/three/four…
Es mediodía. It’s noon.
Es medianoche. It’s midnight.
Son las cinco y cinco. It’s 5:05
Son las ocho y cuarto. It’s 8:15
Son las diez menos cuarto. It’s 9:45
Son cuarto para las diez. It’s 9:45 (common in Mexico)
Son las nueve menos diez. It’s 8:50
Son diez para las nueve. It’s 8:50 (common in Mexico)
Son las tres y media / treinta. It’s 3:30
de la mañana in the morning / AM
de la tarde in the afternoon / PM
de la noche in the evening / PM
en punto exactly / sharp
¿A qué hora? At what time?

Spanish Weather

¿Qué tiempo hace? What’s the weather like?
Hace buen tiempo. The weather’s nice.
Hace mal tiempo. The weather’s bad.
Hace frío. It’s cold.
Hace calor. It’s hot.
Hace sol. It’s sunny.
Hace viento. It’s windy.
Hace fresco. It’s chilly.
Está nublado. It’s cloudy.
Hay niebla. It’s foggy.
Hay neblina. It’s misty.
Hay humedad. It’s humid.
Hay granizo. It’s hailing.
Llueve. It’s raining.
Nieva. It’s snowing.
Truena. It’s thundering.
Llovizna. It’s sprinkling.

Spanish Family

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Spanish Classroom-Present Progressive Tense in Spanish

Learn to speak spanish

Present Progressive Forms in Spanish:

The present progressive tense combines the present indicative of the verb estar (to be) with the present participle of another verb to indicate an action in progress. The present progressive tells what a person “is doing” right now.

  • Estoy hablando con mi madre. (I am speaking with my mother (right now).)
  • Los niños están jugando en el patio. (The children are playing in the yard (right now).)
  • ¿Estás yendo a la tienda ahora? (Are you going to the store now?)
The present participle never changes according to the tense. The progressive tense can be used in any time reference simply by changing the tense of estar, creating the present progressive, preterite progressive, the imperfect progressive, the future progressive, etc. This article explains how to form and when to use the present progressive tense.

Present Progressive Forms

The present progressive is a verb phrase consisting of both estar (the “is” part which indicates the tense) and the present participle (the “-ing” part which indicates what the action is). To form the present progressive, conjugate estar to the present indicative tense and add the present participle form of the verb that the person is actually doing. Present Progressive Formula: estar + present participle (verb stem + -ando for -ar verbs/-iendo for -er and -ir verbs)
Estoy hablando I am speaking Estamos hablando We are speaking
Estás hablando You are speaking Estáis hablando You (all) are speaking
Está hablando You (formal) are speaking He/she is speaking Están hablando You (all, formal) are speaking They are speaking

Present Progressive Uses

Single Current Actions

Simply, what a person is doing right now, and action they are currently participating in.

  • Está escribiendo un ensayo para su clase de español. (He is writing an essay for his Spanish class.)
  • Estamos cocinando la cena. (We are cooking dinner (right now).)
  • Están durmiendo en el dormitorio pequeño. (They are sleeping in the small bedroom (right now).)

In English and Spanish, this is usually expressed using the present progressive, but it is possible to use the present tense in Spanish as well.

  • ¿Qué haces(What are you doing?)
  • Limpio la cocina. (I’m cleaning the kitchen.)
  • ¿Cómo estás(How are you doing?)
  • Estoy bien, gracias. (I´m doing well, thank you.)
1. APRENDER : to learn
Yo: estoy aprendiendo Nosotros: estamos aprendiendo
Tú: estás aprendiendo Vosotros: estáis aprendiendo
Ella: está aprendiendo Ellos: están aprendiendo
2. ASISTIR : to attend
Yo: estoy asistiendo Nosotros: estamos asistiendo
Tú: estás asistiendo Vosotros: estáis asistiendo
Ella: está asistiendo Ellos: están asistiendo
3. BORRAR : to erase
Yo: estoy borrando Nosotros: estamos borrando
Tú: estás borrando Vosotros: estáis borrando
Ella: está borrando Ellos: están borrando
4. CANTAR : to sing
Yo: estoy cantando Nosotros: estamos cantando
Tú: estás cantando Vosotros: estáis cantando
Ella: está cantando Ellos: están cantando
5. COMER : to eat
Yo: estoy comiendo Nosotros: estamos comiendo
Tú: estás comiendo Vosotros: estáis comiendo
Ella: está comiendo Ellos: están comiendo
6. COMPRENDER : to understand
Yo: estoy comprendiendo Nosotros: estamos comprendiendo
Tú: estás comprendiendo Vosotros: estáis comprendiendo
Ella: está comprendiendo Ellos: están comprendiendo
7. CREER : to believe
Yo: estoy creyendo Nosotros: estamos creyendo
Tú: estás creyendo Vosotros: estáis creyendo
Ella: está creyendo Ellos: están creyendo
8. DAR : to give
Yo: estoy dando Nosotros: estamos dando
Tú: estás dando Vosotros: estáis dando
Ella: está dando Ellos: están dando
9. DESPERTARSE : to wake up
Yo: me estoy despertando Nosotros: nos estamos despertando
Tú: te estás despertando Vosotros: os estáis despertando
Ella: se está despertando Ellos: se están despertando
10. DORMIR : to sleep
Yo: estoy durmiendo Nosotros: estamos durmiendo
Tú: estás durmiendo Vosotros: estáis durmiendo
Ella: está durmiendo Ellos: están durmiendo
11. ESCUCHAR : to listen
Yo: estoy escuchando Nosotros: estamos escuchando
Tú: estás escuchando Vosotros: estáis escuchando
Ella: está escuchando Ellos: están escuchando
12. ESTAR : to be
Yo: estoy estando Nosotros: estamos estando
Tú: estás estando Vosotros: estáis estando
Ella: está estando Ellos: están estando
13. ESTUDIAR : to study
Yo: estoy estudiando Nosotros: estamos estudiando
Tú: estás estudiando Vosotros: estáis estudiando
Ella: está estudiando Ellos: están estudiando
14. HABLAR : to speak
Yo: estoy hablando Nosotros: estamos hablando
Tú: estás hablando Vosotros: estáis hablando
Ella: está hablando Ellos: están hablando
15. IR : to go
Yo: estoy yendo Nosotros: estamos yendo
Tú: estás yendo Vosotros: estáis yendo
Ella: está yendo Ellos: están yendo
16. LEER : to read
Yo: estoy leyendo Nosotros: estamos leyendo
Tú: estás leyendo Vosotros: estáis leyendo
Ella: está leyendo Ellos: están leyendo
17. LEVANTARSE : to get up
Yo: me estoy levantando Nosotros: nos estamos levantando
Tú: te estás levantando Vosotros: os estáis levantando
Ella: se está levantando Ellos: se están levantando
18. MIRAR : to watch
Yo: estoy mirando Nosotros: estamos mirando
Tú: estás mirando Vosotros: estáis mirando
Ella: está mirando Ellos: están mirando
19. MONTAR : to ride
Yo: estoy montando Nosotros: estamos montando
Tú: estás montando Vosotros: estáis montando
Ella: está montando Ellos: están montando
20. PEDIR : to ask for
Yo: estoy pidiendo Nosotros: estamos pidiendo
Tú: estás pidiendo Vosotros: estáis pidiendo
Ella: está pidiendo Ellos: están pidiendo
21. QUERER : to want
Yo: estoy queriendo Nosotros: estamos queriendo
Tú: estás queriendo Vosotros: estáis queriendo
Ella: está queriendo Ellos: están queriendo
22. QUITARSE : to take off (clothes)
Yo: me estoy quitando Nosotros: nos estamos quitando
Tú: te estás quitando Vosotros: os estáis quitando
Ella: se está quitando Ellos: se están quitando
23. SALIR : to leave
Yo: estoy saliendo Nosotros: estamos saliendo
Tú: estás saliendo Vosotros: estáis saliendo
Ella: está saliendo Ellos: están saliendo
24. SENTIR : to feel
Yo: estoy sintiendo Nosotros: estamos sintiendo
Tú: estás sintiendo Vosotros: estáis sintiendo
Ella: está sintiendo Ellos: están sintiendo
25. SER : to be
Yo: estoy siendo Nosotros: estamos siendo
Tú: estás siendo Vosotros: estáis siendo
Ella: está siendo Ellos: están siendo
26. TOMAR : to take
Yo: estoy tomando Nosotros: estamos tomando
Tú: estás tomando Vosotros: estáis tomando
Ella: está tomando Ellos: están tomando

Spanish Adjectives

Spanish Adjectives

English adjectives may occur before or after. Spanish adjectives change their endings to ‘agree’ in gender and number with the noun or noun phrase that they are modifying. Masculine adjectives end in -o and adjectives that end in -a are generally feminine. Adjectives that end in -e it can be used with feminine and masculine nouns; the article indicates gender. When the adjective modifies a plural noun, add -s to the adjective. If a masculine or feminine adjective ends in a consonant, add -es to make the adjective plural.

Details and examples

Adjectives tell you something about the noun or noun phrase, for example:
  • La alumna colombiana. The Colombian student.
  • El profesor venezolano. The Venezuelan teacher.
Adjectives that end in -o are masculine:
  • Un amigo argentino. An Argentinian friend.
  • El curso divertido. The fun course.
  • El muchacho guapo. The handsome boy.
Masculine plurals end in -os:
  • Los amigos argentinos. The Argentinian friends.
  • Los cursos divertidos. The fun courses.
  • Los muchachos guapos. The handsome boys.
Adjectives that end in -a are usually feminine:
  • La muchacha bonita. The pretty girl.
  • La escuela antigua. The old school.
  • La amiga simpática. The nice friend.
Feminine plurals end in -as:
  • Las muchachas bonitas. The pretty girls. Las escuelas antiguas.
  • The old schools. Las amigas simpáticas. The nice friends.
Some adjectives end in -e and the plural form ends in -es: El curso interesante. The interesting course. Las clases interesantes. The interesting classes. La alumna inteligente. The intelligent student. Los alumnos inteligentes. The intelligent students. Some adjectives end in a consonant and the plural is formed with -es: El curso difícil – Los cursos difíciles.

Let's Learn Spanish

Beginner Level Nouns in Spanish Unlike English, Spanish has only 2 genders. All nouns are either masculine or feminine. Nouns like ‘book’ which are considered to have no gender in English (neuter gender) are either masculine or feminine in Spanish. When you learn a new word in Spanish it is important to learn what gender it is as well. For example when you learn that ‘mesa’ means table, try to remember it as ‘la mesa’ so you also remember that it is a feminine noun. It is hard to memorize the gender of every single word you learn so here are some general rules that will help you.  GENERAL RULES FOR GENDER IN SPANISH  In general, nouns ending in –o are masculine and nouns ending in –a are feminine (although there are some exceptions).

El muchacho The boy
El chico The boy
El perro The dog
El gato The cat
El hermano The brother
El tío The uncle
El abuelo The grandfather
El libro The book
El plato The dish
El vaso The glass
El carro The car
El pollo The chicken
El toro The bull
Now some examples of feminine nouns in Spanish:
La muchacha The girl
La chica The girl
La perra The dog
La gata The cat
La hermana The girl
La tía The aunt
La abuela The grandmother
La playa The beach
La plata The silver
La mesa The table
La puerta The door
La silla The chair
La casa  The house
‘El’ and ‘La’ are the Spanish definite articles. The Spanish indefinite articles are ‘un’ and ‘una’. El libro – the book Un libro – a book La playa – the beach Una playa – a beach El toro – the bull Un toro – a bull La casa – the house Una casa – a house There are some exceptions to the rule above. The following are some exceptions to the previous rule:
El problema The problem
El sistema The system
El clima The climate
El tema The theme/subject
El día The day
El programa The program
El mapa The map
El agua The water
La mano The hand
La radio The radio
Some nouns change their ending depending on whether they are masculine or feminine:
El maestro The teacher
El profesor The teacher/professor
El bailador The dancer
El mesero The waiter
El camarero The waiter
El actor The actor
La maestra The teacher
La profesora The teacher/professor
La bailadora The dancer
La mesera The waitress
La camarera The waitress
La actriz The actress
Some nouns remain the same whether they are masculine or feminine:
El periodista La periodista The journalist
El socialista La socialista The socialist
El pianista La pianista The pianist
El dentista La dentista The dentist
El piloto La piloto The pilot
El novelista La novelista The novelist/writer
El artista La artista The artist
  Spanish Words, Common Phrases, and Grammar  
English Spanish Pronunciation
Good morning. Buenos días. booEHN-os DEE-as
Good afternoon. Buenas tardes. booEHN-as TAR-dehs
Good evening. (greeting) Buenas noches. booEHN-as NO-chehs
Hello, my name is John. Hola, me llamo Juan. OH-la meh YA-mo Wahn
What is your name? ¿Cómo se llama usted? KOH-moh seh YA-mah oos-TEHD
How are you? ¿Cómo está usted? KOH-moh ehs-TA oos-TEHD
I am fine. Estoy bien. ehs-TOY bee-EHN
Nice to meet you. Mucho gusto. MOO-choh GOOS-toh
Goodbye. Adiós. ah-dee-OHS
See you later. Hasta luego. AHS-ta looEH-go
I am lost. Where is the restroom? Estoy perdido. ¿Dónde está el baño? ehs-TOY pehr-DEE-doh. DOHN-deh ehs-TA el BAH-neeo
Excuse me. Con permiso. OR Perdóname kohn pehr-MEE-soh OR pehr-DOH-nah-meh
Please. Por favor. pohr fah-VOR
Thank you. Gracías. gra-SEE-ahs
I’m sorry. Lo siento. low see-EHN-to
Bless you. Salud. sah-LOOD
You are welcome (it was nothing). De nada. deh NA-da
How much does it cost? ¿Cuánto cuesta? kooAN-to KWEHS-ta
How many are there? ¿Cuántos hay? kooAN-tohs eye
There are many. Hay muchos. eye MOO-chohs
Do you want to buy this? ¿Quiere comprarlo usted? kee-EHR-eh kohm-PRAR-loh oos-TEHD
What time is it? ¿Qué hora es? keh OR-ah ehs
How do you say maybe in Spanish? ¿Cómo se dice maybe en Español? KOH-mo seh DEE-seh maybe ehn ehs-pahn-YOL
Yes. Sí. see
No. No. no
I do not understand. Yo no comprendo. yoh no kom-PREN-doh
Would you speak slower, please. Por favor, habla mas despacio. pohr fah-VOR, AH-blah mahs dehs-PAHS-ee-oh
Who? ¿Quièn? kee-EHN
Why? ¿Por què? pohr keh
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