Danish Lessons

Definite and Indefinite Article

All nouns in Danish are either common or neuter in gender. About 75% of nouns are of common gender, but many very frequently used nouns are neuter.

Indefinite Article (a/an)

A/an is expressed by en with common nouns and by et with neuter nouns. Indefinite plurals are formed by adding -e or -er to the singular.
singular plural
common neuter
en bil a car
et hus a house
biler cars
huse houses
Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural and some others are irregular.
singular plural
et rum a room
en bog a book
rum rooms
bøger books

Definite Article (the)

The definite article is tagged onto the end of the noun. In the singular, common nouns take an -en ending, neuter nouns take an -et ending. In the plural, both take an -(e)ne or -(er)ne ending.
singular plural
common neuter
bilen the car
toget the train
bilerne the cars
togene the trains
Here are some more examples with both definite/indefinite and singular/plural forms:
singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
en bil a car
en skole a school
en stol a stool
en mus a mouse
en chip a chip
bilen the car
skolen the school
stolen the stool
musen the mouse
chippen the chip
biler cars
skoler schools
stole stools
mus mice
chips chips
bilerne the cars
skolerne the schools
stolene the stools
musene the mice
chipsene the chips
et hotel a hotel
et hus a house
et år a year
hotellet the hotel
huset the house
året the year
hoteller hotels
huse houses
år years
hotellerne the hotels
husene the houses
årene the years

Danish Pronouns

Learning the Danish Pronouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Danish language. But first we need to know what the role of Pronouns is in the structure of the grammar in Danish. Danish pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb’s subject). Here are some examples:
English Pronouns Danish Pronouns
Pronouns Pronominer
I Jeg
you du
he han
she hun
we vi
they de
me mig
you du
him ham
her hende
us os
them dem
my min
your Deres
his hans
her hende
our vores
their deres
mine mine
yours Deres
his hans
hers hendes
ours vores
theirs deres
As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Pronouns in Danish has a logical pattern. Locate the Pronouns above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Dansk.

List of Pronouns in Danish

Below is a list of the Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns in Danish placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Danish vocabulary.
English Pronouns Danish Pronouns
I speak Jeg taler
you speak du taler
he speaks han taler
she speaks hun taler
we speak vi taler
they speak de taler
give me give mig
give you give dig
give him give ham
give her give hende
give us give os
give them give dem
my book min bog
your book Deres bog
his book hans bog
her book hendes bog
our book vores bog
their book deres bog

Danish Articles and Demonstratives

How to say a, an, the, this, that, these and those in Danish

There are two indefinite articles (corresponding to a and an) in Danish: en and et. En is used with most of the nouns (words denoting people almost always use en), but you will just have to learn which article goes with which noun. The definite article (the) is not a separate word like in most other languages. It is simply a form of the indefinite article attached to the end of the noun. Note that en words ending in a vowel retain that vowel and add an -n instead of adding -en, while et words ending in -e just add a -t.
En words (common)
Indefinite Definite
en banan a banana bananen the banana
en stol a chair stolen the chair
en gade a street gaden the street
Et words (neuter)
Indefinite Definite
et bord a table bordet the table
et køkken a kitchen køkkenet the kitchen
et æble an apple æblet the apple
This/that is expressed in Danish by using denne (en words) or dette (et words) and these/those is expressed bydisse. The noun is always in the indefinite form after these demonstratives, except for when these / disse (plural) is used, in which case an er is added (unless the words already ends in an r) after the indefinite demonstrative. this banana = denne banan that table = dette bord these streets = disse gader these apples = disse æbler

Danish Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns

with en words with et words with plural words
my / mine min mit mine
your / yours din dit dine
his / her / its / their sin sit sine
his / his hans hans hans
her / hers hendes hendes hendes
its / its dens dens dens
our / ours vores vores vores
your / yours deres deres deres
their / theirs deres deres deres
The same forms are used for possessive adjectives that are used directly before nouns and for possessive pronouns that replace a noun. For example, this is my car and this is mine would be translated as det her er min bil and det her er min. Sin, sit and sine can only be used when the third person possessive adjective refers to the subject of the same clause. These words can be translated as his, her, its or their. Generally, if you cannot insert “own” after the possessive adjective in English, you cannot use sin/sit/sine. Per besøger sin mor. = Per visits his (own) mother. (Sin refers back to Per.) Eva ringer til hans mor. = Eva calls his mother. (Hans refers to Per, not Eva.)

The Verbs Be and Have in Danish

at være – to be
I am jeg er I was jeg var
you are du er  you were du var
he is han er he was han var
she is hun er she was hun var
it is den er it was den var
it is det er it was det var
one is man er  one was man var
we are vi er we were vi var
you are De er you were De var
they are de er they were de var
at have – to have
I have jeg har I had jeg havde
you have du har you had du havde
he has han har he had han havde
she has hun har she had hun havde
it has den har it had den havde
it has det har it had det havde
one has man har one had man havde
we have vi har we had vi havde
you have De har you had De havde
they have de har they had de havde
To form the future tense of verbs, just add vil before the infinitive. Jeg vil være= I will be; hun vil have = she will have; etc. However, the present tense can often be used with adverbs of time to indicate the future. The word skalcan also be used in place of vil, but this implies a promise rather than a general future condition. To make a sentence negative, simply add ikke after the verb. If there is a modal verb and a main verb (such as vil and an infinitive), ikke goes between these two verbs. In addition, if you answer “yes” to a negative question, you must use jo instead of ja.


Hej! Hi  
Goddag Hello (formal) 
Hvordan har du det? How are you?
Hvad så? What’s up? (informal)
Farvel Good bye
God morgen Good morning
God nat Good night
Tak! Thank you
Undskyld mig Excuse me
Jeg elsker dig I love you
Essential Danish:
English Danish
Hello Goddag / Hej
Good evening Godaften
Goodbye Hej hej
See you later Vi ses senere
Yes Jo
No Nej
Excuse me! Undskyld  ?
Thanks Tak
Thanks a lot Mange tak
Thank you for your help Tak for hjœlpen
Don’t mention it Det var så lidt
Ok Okay, det er I orden
How much is it? Hvor meget koster det ?
Sorry! Undskyld
I don’t understand Jeg forstår det ikke
I get it Jeg har forstået
I don’t know Det ved jeg ikke
Forbidden Forbudt
Excuse me, where are the toilets? Undskyld, hvor finder jeg toiletterne  ?
Happy New Year! Godt nytår!
Happy birthday! Tillykke med fødselsdagen !
Happy holiday! God højtid
Congratulations! Tillykke!
English Greetings Danish Greetings:
Hi! Hej!
Good morning! God morgen!
Good evening! God aften!
Welcome! (to greet someone) Velkommen!
How are you? Hvordan har du/ de det?
I’m fine, thanks! Jeg har det fint, tak!
And you? Og dig/ dem?
Good/ So-So. Godt/ Sådan nogenlunde.
Thank you (very much)! Tak! (Mange tak!)
You’re welcome! (for “thank you”) Du/ de er velkommen!
Hey! Friend! Hej! Ven!
I missed you so much! Jeg har savnet dig/ dem så meget!
What’s new? Hvad så?
Nothing much Ikke meget.
Good night! God nat!
See you later! På gensyn!
Good bye! Farvel!
Asking for Help and Directions
I’m lost Jeg er faret vild.
Can I help you? Kan jeg hjælpe dig/ dem?
Can you help me? Kan du/ de hjælpe mig?
Where is the (bathroom/ pharmacy)? Hvor er (toilettet/ apoteket)?
Go straight! then turn left/ right! Gå lige ud. Drej derefter til venstre/ højre!
I’m looking for john. Jeg leder efter John.
One moment please! Et øjeblik!
Hold on please! (phone) Et øjeblik!
How much is this? Hvor meget koster den/ det?
Excuse me …! (to ask for something) Undskyld mig…
Excuse me! ( to pass by) Undskyld!
Come with me! Kom med mig!
How to Introduce Yourself
Do you speak (English/ Danish)? Taler du/ de (engelsk/ dansk)?
Just a little. Kun en smule.
What’s your name? Hvad er dit/ deres navn?
My name is … Mit navn er…
Mr…/ Mrs.…/ Miss… Hr…/Fru…/Frøken…
Nice to meet you! Hyggeligt at møde dig/ dem!
You’re very kind! Du/ de er meget venlig!
Where are you from? Hvor er du/ de fra?
I’m from (the U.S/ Denmark) Jeg er fra (USA/ Danmark)
I’m (American) Jeg er amerikaner.
Where do you live? Hvor bor du/ de?
I live in (the U.S/ Danmark) Jeg bor i (USA/ Danmark)
Did you like it here? Kan du/ de lide det her?
Denmark is a wonderful country Danmark er et fantastisk land.
What do you do for a living? Hvad arbejder du/ de som?
I work as a (translator/ businessman) Jeg arbejder som en (oversætter/ forretningsmand)
I like Danish Jeg kan lide dansk.
I’ve been learning Danish for 1 month Jeg har lært dansk i en måned.
Oh! That’s good! Oh! Det er godt!
How old are you? Hvor gammel er du/ de?
I’m (twenty, thirty…) years old. Jeg er (tyve, tredive…) år gammel.
I have to go Jeg er nødt til at gå.
I will be right back! Jeg er straks tilbage!
Wish Someone Something
Good luck! Held og lykke!
Happy birthday! Tillykke med fødselsdagen!
Happy new year! Godt nytår!
Merry Christmas! Glædelig jul!
Congratulations! Tillykke!
Enjoy! (for meals…) Velbekomme!
I’d like to visit Denmark one day Jeg kunne tænke mig at besøge Danmark en dag.
Say hi to John for me Sig hej til John fra mig.
Bless you (when sneezing) Prosit!
Good night and sweet dreams! God nat og drøm sødt!
Solving a Misunderstanding
I’m Sorry! (if you don’t hear something) Undskyld!
Sorry (for a mistake) Jeg beklager.
No Problem! Intet problem!
Can You Say It Again? Kan du/ de sige det igen?
Can You Speak Slowly? Kan du/ de sige det langsomt?
Write It Down Please! Vær venlig at skrive det ned!
I Don’t Understand! Jeg forstår ikke!
I Don’t Know! Jeg ved det ikke!
I Have No Idea. Jeg har ingen anelse!
What’s That Called In Danish? Hvad hedder det på dansk?
What Does “gato” Mean In English? Hvad betyder “undsklyld” på Engelsk?
How Do You Say “Please” In Danish? Hvordan siger man “please” på dansk?
What Is This? Hvad er det?
My Danish is bad. Mit dansk er dårligt.
I need to practice my Danish Jeg har brug for at øve mit dansk.
Don’t worry! Bare rolig!
Danish Expressions and Words
Good/ Bad/ So-So. Godt/ Dårligt/ Sådan nogenlunde
Big/ Small Stor/ Lille
Today/ Now I dag/ Nu
Tomorrow/ Yesterday I morgen/ I går
Yes/ No Ja/ Nej
Here you go! (when giving something) Værsgo!
Do you like it? Kan du/ de lide den?
I really like it! Jeg kan virkelig lide den!
I’m hungry/ thirsty. Jeg er sulten/ tørstig.
In The Morning/ Evening/ At Night. Om morgenen/ om aftenen/ om natten
This/ That. Here/There Denne/dette / den/det. Her/ der
Me/ You. Him/ Her. Mig/ dig/ dem. Ham/ Hende
Really! Virkelig!
Look! Se!
Hurry up! Skynd dig/ dem!
What? Where? Hvad? Hvor?
What time is it? Hvad er klokken?
It’s 10 o’clock. 07:30pm. Klokken er 10. Klokken 7:30.
Give me this! Giv mig den/det!
I love you! Jeg elsker dig/ dem!
I feel sick. Jeg føler mig dårlig.
I need a doctor Jeg har brug for en læge.
One, Two, Three En, to, tre
Four, Five, Six Fire, fem, seks
Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten Syv, otte, ni, ti
Danish Conversation:
English Danish
Hello. How are you? Hej, hvordan har du det ?
Hello. I’m fine, thank you Hej, jeg har det fint, tak
Do you speak Danish? Taler du dansk ?
No, I don’t speak Danish Nej, jeg taler ikke dansk
Only a little bit En lille smule
Where do you come from? Hvor er du fra ?
What is your nationality? Hvor kommer du fra ?
I am English Jeg er englænder
And you, do you live here? Og hvad med dig, er du herfra ?
Yes, I live here Ja, jeg bor her
My name is Sarah, what’s your name? Jeg hedder Sarah, hvad hedder du ?
Julian Jeg hedder Julien
What are you doing here? Hvad laver du her ?
I am on holiday Jeg er på ferie
We are on holiday Vi er på ferie
I am on a business trip Jeg er på forretningsrejse
I work here Jeg arbejder her
We work here Vi arbejder her
Where are the good places to go out and eat? Er der nogle gode steder at spise ?
Is there a museum in the neighbourhood? Er der et museum her i nærheden?
Where could I get an internet connection? Hvor jeg jeg gå på internettet ?
The Time What time is it?: Hvad er klokken? It’s ? o’clock.: Klokken er ? Today: i dag Tomorrow: i morgen Early: tidlig Monday: mandag Tuesday: tirsdag Wednesday: onsdag Thursday: torsdag Friday: fredag Saturday: lordag Sunday: sondag Numbers Zero: nul One: en Two: to Three: tre Four: fire Five: fem Six: seks Seven: syv Eight: otte Nine: ni Ten: ti


John and Mette meet at Mads’ party
John: Hej. Jeg hedder John. Hi. I’m John
Mette: Hej, Mette. Hi. Mette
John: Fed fest, hva’? Nice party, huh?
Mette: Ja, det er det. Yes, it is.
Hvor kender du Mads fra? How do you know Mads?
John: Vi arbejder sammen. We work together
Mette: Er du også lærer? Are you also a teacher?
John: Ja, det er jeg. Yes, I am.
Jeg arbejder som vikar her i København. I’m working as a substitute teacher here in Copenhagen.
Mette: Kommer du fra København? Are you from Copenhagen?
John: Nej, jeg er faktisk ikke dansker. No, I’m actually not a Dane.
Jeg kommer fra Namibia. I’m from Namibia.
Mette: Er det rigtigt? Really?
Hvor spændende. How exciting.
Hvor længe har du været i Danmark? How long have you been in Denmark?
John: Jeg har været her i næsten tre måneder. I’ve been here almost 3 months.
Mette: Men du taler da flot dansk! But you speak Danish very well.
John: Tak. Thanks.
Mine forældre er danskere. My parents are Danes.
Min mor bor her og min far bor i Namibia. My mother lives here, and my father lives in Namibia.
Jeg kom for at besøge min mor. I came to visit my mother.
Mette: OK. OK.
Kommer du så fra Windhoek? Are you from Windhoek, then?
John: Nej, jeg kommer fra Swakopmund. No, I’m from Swakopmund.
Det er en lille by. It’s a small town.
Hvad med dig? How about you?
Mette: Nå, jeg er bare almindelig dansker. Oh, I’m just an ordinary Dane.
Jeg er fra Aarhus, men jeg bor i København. I’m from Aarhus, but I live in Copenhagen.
John: Hvad laver du? What do you do?
Mette: Jeg er skuespiller. I’m an actress
Danish Audio Lessons

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