Dutch Classes

Dutch language course

Dutch Language

Basic Dutch Phrases

Good Morning Goedemorgen khoo-duh-mawr-ghuh
Good Day Goedemiddag khoo-duh-mih-dahkh
Good Evening Goedenavond khoo-duh-nah-fohnt
Good Night Goedenacht khoo-duh-nahkht
Hi / Bye Hoi / Hallo / Daag / Doei hoy / hah-loh / dahk / doo-ee
Goodbye Tot ziens toht zeens
See you later (in the same day) Tot straks toht straks
See you soon Tot zo toht zoh
Please Alstublieft / Alsjeblieft ahlst-ew-bleeft / ahl-shuh-bleeft
Thank you Dank u wel / Dank je wel dahnk-ew-vehl / dahnk-yuh-vehl
Thank you very much Hartelijk bedankt hahr-tuh-lik buh-dahnkt
You’re welcome (don’t mention it) Graag gedaan khrahkh khuh-dahn
I’m sorry / Excuse me Sorry saw-ree
Pardon me (didn’t understand) Pardon, wat zei u? pahr-dohn, vat zay ew
Yes / No Ja / Nee yah / nay
How are you? (formal) Hoe gaat het met u? hoo khaht ut meht ew
How are you? (informal) Hoe gaat het? hoo khaht ut
Fine / Very well Goed / Heel goed khoot / hayl khoot
So so / Bad Het gaat / Slecht uht khaht / slehkht
I’m tired / sick. Ik ben moe / ziek  ik ben moo / zeek
I’m hungry / thirsty. Ik heb honger / dorst ik heb hohng-ur / dohrst
What’s your name? (formal) Hoe heet u? hoo hayt ew
What’s your name? (informal) Hoe heet je? hoo hayt yuh
My name is (I’m called)… Ik heet… ik hayt…
I am… Ik ben… ik ben
Nice to meet you. Aangenaam (kennis te maken) ahn-guh-nahm (ken-nis tuh mah-kuh)
Mister / Misses / Miss meneer / mevrouw / mejuffrouw muh-nayr / muh-frow / muh-yuh-frow
Where are you from? (formal) Waar komt u vandaan? vahr kawmt ew fun-dahn
Where are you from? (informal) Waar kom je vandaan? vahr kawn yuh fun-dahn
I am from the Netherlands. Ik kom uit Nederland. ik kawm owt nay-der-lant
Where do you live? (formal) Waar woont u? vahr vohnt ew
Where do you live? (informal) Waar woon je? vahr vohn yuh
I live in America. Ik woon in Amerika. ik vohn in ah-meh-ree-kah
How old are you? (formal) Hoe oud bent u? hoo owt bent ew
How old are you? (informal) Hoe oud ben je? hoo owt ben yuh
I am ____ years old. Ik ben … jaar (oud). ik ben … yahr owt
Do you speak Dutch? (formal) Spreekt u Nederlands? spraykt ew nay-der-lahnds
Do you speak English? informal) Spreek je Engels? sprayk yuh ehng-uhls
I [don’t] speak… Ik spreek [geen]… ik sprayk [khayn]
I don’t speak … very well. Ik spreek niet zo goed… ik sprayk neet zoh khood
I [don’t] understand. Ik begrijp het [niet.] ik buh-khraip ut neet
I [don’t] know. Ik weet het [niet.] ik vayt ut [neet]
How much is it? Wat kost het? vat kohst ut
I’d like… Ik wil graag… ik vil khrahk
Cheers! Proost! prohst
Have fun! Veel plezier! fayl pleh-zeer
Good luck! Veel succes! fayl suk-sehs
Be careful! Wees voorzichtig! vays fohr-zikh-tikh
That is great / terrible! Dat is geweldig / vreselijk! dat is khuh-vehl-duhkh / fray-zuh-likh
I love you. (informal) Ik hou van je. ik how fahn yuh
I love you (all). Ik hou van jullie. ik how fahn juh-lee
How funny / odd! Wat vreemd! vaht fraymt
What a pity! Wat jammer! vaht yah-mer
What is this / that? Wat is dit / dat? vut iss dit / dut
In the pronunciations, kh denotes a uvular guttural sound. Meneer, mevrouw and mejuffrouw are all written with a small letter when they precede a name. When typing, de Heer is used instead of meneer and Dhr. is used on envelopes. Mevrouw and mejuffrouw are abbreviated as Mevr. and Mej. In addition, Mw. can be used as an equivalent of the English Ms.

Dutch Pronunciation

Dutch letters English sound
ch / g guttural sound, made at back of mouth
sch s followed by guttural ch sound
w like v before r, otherwise like w but with bottom lip against top teeth
v like v, but sometimes closer to f
r either rolled or guttural
j y as in yes
sj sh as in ship
tj ch as in chip
aa ah as in father, but longer
ee ay as in hail, but shorter
ie ee as in neat, but shorter
oo oh as in boat
oe oo as in pool, but shorter
eu ur as in hurt, but with lips rounded
uu ew, but with lips rounded (sound not found in English)
a ah as in father, but shorter
e eh as in bed
i ih as in bit
o aw as in paw, with lips rounded
u ir as in dirt, but very short
ei / ij between the sounds in “light” and “late”
aai combination of aa and ie
oei combination of oe and ie
ooi combination of oo and ie
ou / au like ow, as in house
eeuw combination of ee and oe
ieuw combination of ie and oe
uw combination of uu and oe
ui combination of a and uu
The consonants s, f, h, b, d, z, l, m, n, and ng are pronounced the same way in Dutch as in English. P, t, and k are pronounced without the puff of air (called aspiration.) Sometimes the g is pronounced like zh in words borrowed from French. One last vowel sound is found in various Dutch spellings. It is pronounced like uh, as in along or sofa. For example, this sound is found in de (the), een (a), aardig (nice), and vriendelijk (kind).

Dutch Nouns and Gender

All nouns have a gender in Dutch, either common (de words) or neuter (het words).   It is hard to guess which gender a noun is, so it is best to memorize the genders when memorizing vocabulary. However, two-thirds of Dutch words are common gender (because the common gender has combined the former feminine and masculine genders.) So it may be easier to memorize which nouns are neuter, and then assign common gender to the rest. All diminutives (words ending in -je) and infinitives used as nouns, as well as colors, metals, compass directions, and all words that end in -um, -aat, -sel, -isme are neuter. Most nouns beginning with ge- and ending with -te are neuter, as are most nouns beginning with ge-, be-, and ver-. Common noun endings include: -aar, -ent, -er, -es, -eur, -heid, -ij, -ing, -teit, -tie.

Articles & Demonstratives

Singular “the”
Plural “the”
Indefinite “a” or “an”
  common neuter
Singular this that deze die dit dat
Plural these those
deze die
The definite article is used more in Dutch than in English. It is always used before the names of the seasons, street names and in an abstract sense. There are some idioms that should be memorized, however: in het Nederlands (in Dutch), in de stad (in town), in het zwart (in black), met de auto (by car), met de tijd (in/with time); op tafel (on the table), in zee (in the sea), op kantoor (at the office), in bad (in the bath), op straat (in the street).

Dutch Subject and Object Pronouns

I ik (‘k) me mij (me)
you (singular familiar) jij (je) you jou (je)
you (singular formal) u you u
he hij him hem (‘m)
she zij (ze) her haar (ze)
it hij / het it het (‘t)
we wij (we) us ons
you (plural familiar) jullie you jullie (je)
you (plural formal) u you u
they zij (ze) them hen (ze) / hun (ze)

Unstressed forms (shortened forms used mostly in the spoken language) are in parentheses. There are also unstressed forms of ik (‘k), hij (ie) and het (‘t) but these are not written in the standard language. You will see them in informal writing, however (such as on internet forums or sometimes in film subtitles.)

Direct and indirect object pronouns are the same in Dutch, except for “them.”  Hen is used if it is a direct object, and hun is used if it is an indirect object.  Generally, indirect objects are preceded by “to” or “from” in English, and direct objects are not preceded by any prepositions.  Additionally, these object pronouns are used after prepositions.

An alternative way of showing possession without using the possessive pronouns is to use van + object pronoun.  In fact, this is the only way to show possession with the jullie form, as there is no possessive pronoun for it.  This construction corresponds to “of + object” and occurs often in sentences with the verb “to be.”  Is deze pen van jou?  Is this your pen?  Die schoenen zijn niet van mij.  Those shoes are not mine.

If the noun is not present in the clause, then die or dat + van + object pronoun is used. Mijn huis is klein; dat van hem is erg groot.  My house is small; his is very large.

Dutch Verbs To Be & to Have – Zijn and Hebben

Present tense of zijn – to be (zayn)

I am ik ben ik ben we are wij zijn vay zayn
you are jij / u bent yay / ew bent you are jullie zijn yew-lee zayn
he, she, it is hij, zij, het is hay, zay, ut is they are zij zijn zay zayn

Present tense of hebben – to have (heh-buhn)

I have ik heb ik hep we have wij hebben vay heh-buhn
you have jij / u hebt yay / ew hept you have jullie hebben yew-lee heh-buhn
he, she, it is hij, zij, het heeft hay, zay, ut hayft they have zij hebben zay heh-buhn

U heeft rather than u hebt is also possible.

Past tense of zijn – to be (zayn)

I was ik was ik vas we were wij waren vay vah-ruhn
you were jij / u was yay / ew vas you were jullie waren yew-lee vah-ruhn
he, she, it was hij, zij, het was hay, zay, ut vas they were zij waren zay vah-ruhn

Past tense of hebben – to have (heh-buhn)

I had ik had ik haht we had wij hadden vay hah-duhn
you had jij / u had yay / ew haht you had jullie hadden yew-lee hah-duhn
he, she, it had hij, zij, het had hay, zay, ut haht they had zij hadden zay hah-duhn

You must use the subject pronouns; however, I will leave them out of future conjugations since most verbs only have two forms for each conjugation.

Expressions with zijn and hebben: Het/dat is jammer – It’s/that’s a pity jarig zijn – to have a birthday kwijt zijn – to have lost op het punt staan – to be about to van plan zijn – to intend voor elkaar zijn – to be in order honger / dorst hebben – to be hungry / thirsty gelijk hebben – to be right haast hebben – to be in a hurry het hebben over – to talk about het druk hebben – to be busy het koud hebben / warm – to be cold / warm last hebben van – to be bothered by nodig hebben – to need slaap hebben – to be sleepy zin hebben in – to feel like

Dutch Useful Words

sometimes soms
always altijd
never nooit
often vaak, dikwijls
usually gewoonlijk
now nu
and en
but maar
or of
very zeer, heel
here hier
there daar
also ook
much veel
another een ander
already al
perhaps misschien

Dutch Question Words

who wie where waar
what wat where to waar… naartoe
why waarom where from waar… vandaan
when wanneer which welk / welke
how hoe Isn’t it?, etc. niet waar?

Dutch Numbers

0 nul    
1 een 1st eerste
2 twee 2nd tweede
3 drie 3rd drede
4 vier 4th vierde
5 vijf 5th vijfde
6 zes 6th zesde
7 zeven 7th zevende
8 acht 8th achtste
9 negen 9th negende
10 tien 10th tiende
11 elf 11th elfde
12 twaalf 12th twaalfde
13 dertien 13th dertiende
14 veertien 14th veertiende
15 vijftien 15th vijftiende
16 zestien 16th zestiende
17 zeventien 17th zeventiende
18 achttien 18th achttiende
19 negentien 19th negentiende
20 twintig 20th twintigste
21 eenentwintig 21st eenentwintigste
22 tweeëntwintig 22nd tweeëntwintigste
23 drieëntwintig 23rd drieentwintigste
30 dertig 30th dertigste
40 veertig 40th veertigste
50 vijftig 50th vijftigste
60 zestig 60th zestigste
70 zeventig 70th zeventigste
80 tachtig 80th tachtigste
90 negentig 90th negentigste
100 honderd 100th honderdste
101 honderd en een 101st honderd en eerste
110 honderd tien 110th honderd tiende
200 tweehonderd 200th tweehonderdste
1,000 duizend 1,000th duizendste
1,001 duizend en een 1,001st duizend en eerste
million een miljoen millionth miljoenste
billion een miljard billionth miljardste
de helft half een keer once
een derde one third twee keer twice
een kwart one quarter drie keer three time
In the word for twenty-two, the ë is necessary because there are three of the same vowels in a row, and the accent mark shows that the third one needs to be pronounced separately. The use of commas and decimals is reversed in Dutch.

Dutch Days of the Week

Monday maandag
Tuesday dinsdag
Wednesday woensdag
Thursday donderdag
Friday vrijdag
Saturday zaterdag
Sunday zondag
day dag
morning ochtend
afternoon middag
evening avond
night nacht
today vandaag
tomorrow morgen
tonight deze nacht
yesterday gisteren
last night (de) afgelopen nacht
day after tomorrow overmorgen
day before yesterday eergisteren
week week
last week afgelopen week
weekend weekend
daily dagelijks
weekly wekelijks

Dutch Months of the Year

January januari
February februari
March maart
April april
May mei
June juni
July juli
August augustus
September september
October oktober
November november
December december
month maand
year jaar
last year het afgelopen jaar
monthly maandelijks
yearly jaarlijks

Dutch Seasons and Directions

Winter de winter
Spring de lente / het voorjaar
Summer de zomer
Autumn de herfst / het najaar
  Compass/Wind Location/Movement    
North noord noorden right rechts
South zuid zuiden left links
East oost oosten straight rechtdoor
West west westen    

Dutch Colors and Shapes

orange oranje square vierkant
pink roze circle cirkel
purple paars triangle driehoek
blue blauw rectangle rechthoek
yellow geel oval ovaal
red rood box vak
black zwart sphere bol
brown bruin cube kubus
gray grijs pyramid piramide
white wit cone kegel
green groen cylinder cilinder
silver zilver heart hart
gold goud star ster
beige beige diamond diamant
light licht crescent halvemaan
dark donker    

Licht and donker are added to the colors to mean light and dark: lichtbruin – light brown.

Telling Time in Dutch

What time is it? Hoe laat is het?
It’s 1:00 Het is een uur.
2:00 Het is twee uur.
3:30 Het is half vier.
5:45 Het is kwart voor zes.
7:03 Het is drie (minuten) over zeven.
at 9:30 om half tien
noon twaalf uur ‘s middags
midnight twaalf uur ‘s nachts / middernacht
In the morning ‘s ochtends
During the day ‘s middags
In the evening ‘s avonds
At night ‘s nachts

Minuten can be omitted, just as in English.

How to talk about the weather in Dutch

ow’s the weather today? Wat voor weer is het vandaag?
It’s cold Het is koud
beautiful Het is mooi
hot Het is heet
clear Het is helder
icy Het is ijzig
warm Het is warm
windy Het is windig
cloudy Het is bewolkt
hazy Het is mistig
muggy Het is drukkend / benauwd
humid Het is vochtig
foggy Het is mistig
It’s snowing Het sneeuwt
It’s raining Het regent
It’s freezing Het vriest

Dutch Family and Pets Vocabulary

family familie sister-in-law schoonzuster
parents ouders brother-in-law zwager
mother moeder / mamma godmother meter
father vader / papa godfather peetvader
child / children kind / kinderen boy jongen
son zoon girl meisje (n)
daughter dochter child kind
brother broeder / broer man, husband man
Sister zuster / zus woman, wife vrouw
grandparents grootouder friend (m) vriend
grandfather grootvader / opa friend (f) vriendin
grandmother grootmoeder / oma adult volwassene
grandchildren kleinkinderen relative bloedverwant
grandson kleinzoon siblings broers en zusters
granddaughter kleindochter twin tweeling
niece / cousin (f) nicht birth geboorte
nephew / cousin (m) neef death dood
uncle oom marriage huwelijk (n)
aunt tante divorce echtscheiding
stepmother stiefmoeder    
stepfather stiefvader dog hond
stepdaughter stiefdochter cat poes
stepson stiefzoon bird vogel
stepsister stiefzuster goldfish goudvis
stepbrother stiefbroeder gerbil woestijnrat
mother-in-law schoonmoeder hamster hamster
father-in-law schoonvader ferret fret
daughter-in-law schoondochter horse paard
son-in-law schoonzoon pony pony
In the vocabulary lists, (n) after the noun means that the gender is neuter and the definite article is het (rather than de.)

Dutch Verbs Know – Kennen and Weten

kennen – to know people
  singular plural
Present: know(s) ken ken kennen ken-nuh
Past: knew kende ken-duh kenden ken-duh
weten – to know facts
  singular plural
Present: know(s) weet vayt weten vay-tuh
Past: knew wist vist wisten vist-uh

How to form plural nouns in Dutch

Most plural nouns are formed by adding either -en or -s. Remember that the definite article is always de before plural nouns.

1. -en (the n is pronounced softly) is added to most nouns, with a few spelling changes

boek – boeken book(s) jas – jassen coat(s) haar – haren hair(s) huis – huizen house(s)

Spelling changes: Words with long vowels (aa, ee, oo, and uu) drop the one vowel when another syllable is added. Words with the short vowels (a, e, i, o and u) double the following consonant to keep the vowels short. The letters f and s occur at the end of words or before consonants, while the letters v and z occur in the middle of words before vowels. (These spelling rules are also used for conjugating verbs, so it’s best to memorize them as soon as possible.)

2. -s is added to nouns ending in the unstressed syllables -el, -em, -en, and -er (and -aar(d), -erd, -ier when referring to people), foreign words and to most nouns ending in an unstressed vowel

tafel – tafels table(s) jongen – jongens boy(s) tante – tantes aunt(s) bakker – bakkers baker(s)

Nouns ending in the vowels -a, -o, and -u add an apostrophe before the s: foto’s, paraplu’s

Irregular forms

3. Some nouns containing a short vowel do not double the following consonant in the plural before -en. The plural vowel is then pronounced as long.

bad – baden bath(s) dag – dagen day(s) spel – spelen game(s) (like the Olympics, smaller games are spellen) glas – glazen glass(es) weg – wegen road(s)

4. A few neuter nouns take the ending -eren (or -deren if the noun ends in -n)

blad – bladeren leaf (leaves) kind – kinderen child(ren) ei – eieren egg(s) been – beenderen bone(s) [Note: been – benen leg(s)] lied – liederen song(s) volk – volkeren nation(s), people

5. Nouns ending in -heid have a plural in -heden.

mogelijkheid – mogelijkheden possibility (possibilities)

6. Some other common irregular plurals are:

stad – steden town(s) schip – schepen ship(s) lid – leden member(s) koe – koeien cow(s)

Dutch Possessives: Adjectives and Pronouns

Singular   Plural  
mijn (m’n) my ons / onze our
jouw (je) your (informal) jullie (je) your (informal)
uw your (formal) uw your (formal)
zijn (z’n) his hun their
haar her
zijn (z’n) its

Ons is used before singular neuter/het nouns, and onze is used elsewhere (before singular common/de nouns, and all plural nouns.) Je, the unstressed form of jouw, is commonly used in spoken and written Dutch, unless the speaker/writer wants to stress the pronoun. In the plural,jullie is the norm, unless jullie has already been used in the sentence, then je is used to avoid the redundancy. The other unstressed forms are not commonly written in the standard language, but are commonly spoken and written in informal communication.

Like in English, Dutch possessive adjectives are used in front of a noun to show possession: mijn boek (my book). There are a few ways to express the -‘s used in English too. -s can be added to proper names and members of the family: Jans boek (John’s book) The preposition vancan be used to mean of: het boek van Jan (the book of John = John’s book) And in more colloquial speech, the unstressed forms in parentheses above (agreeing in gender and number) can be used in place of the -s: Jan z’n boek (John’s book)

To form the possessive pronouns, add -e to the stressed forms (except for jullie) and use the correct article. The only way to show possession with jullie is to use van jou (literally meaning “of you”), although all the others can be used with van too.

de/het mijne, jouwe, uwe, zijne, hare, onze, hunne (mine, yours, yours, his/its, hers, ours, theirs)

Dutch Course 1 Dutch Video Course 2 Dutch Complete 3 Learn Dutch Dutch Essentials

Scroll to Top