Pronouns In Arabic

Separate Subject Pronouns

English Arabic (MSA) Pronunciation
First Person I أَنَا ana
we نَحْنُ nahnu
Second Person you (masculine) أَنْتَ anta
you (feminine) أَنْتِ anti
you (dual) أَنْتُمَا antumaa
you (masculine plural) أَنْتُمْ antum
you (feminine plural) أَنْتُنَّ antunna
Third Person he هُوَ huwa
she هِيَ hiya
the two of them (dual) هُمَا humaa
they (masculine) هُمْ hum
they (feminine) هُنَّ hunna
Subject pronouns (I, you, we, he, she, we, they) take the place of a noun and function as the subject of a sentence.
أنا من أمريكا (ana min amriika) I am from the US.هو مهندس (howwa mohandis) He is an engineer.
Note: In Arabic, the subject pronoun is frequently dropped. You can tell from a verb conjugation who the subject is, so it’s not really necessary to use the subject pronoun in such cases except for emphasis. However, in equational (verbless) sentences like the two above, you do need the subject pronoun.

Subject pronouns in standard and Egyptian Arabic

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic
Singular I
أنا (ana)
you (masc.) انتَ (anta) انت (inta)
you (fem.) انتِ (anti) انتى (inti)
هو (howwa)
هي (heyya)
Dual we نحن (naHnu)
you أنتما (antuma)
they هما (humaa)
Plural we نحن (naHnu) احنا (eHna)
you (masc.) أنتم (antum) انتو (intu)
you (fem.) أنتن (antunna)
they (masc.) هم (homa) هم (homa)
they (fem.) هن (hunna)
In English, there is only one second-person pronoun, “you,” which is used whether you’re talking to one person, two people, or more. But in Arabic, as you see above, there are masculine and feminine versions of “you,” as well as singular, dual (standard Arabic only), and plural versions: انتَ\انتِ if you’re addressing one person, أنتما if you’re addressing two (in standard Arabic), and أنتم\أنتن if you’re addressing three or more people. Note that the dual “you” (أنتما) is the same regardless of gender. In standard Arabic, there is also a dual version of “they” (هما – which is gender-indiscriminate as well) and masculine and feminine versions of the plural “they” (همand هن). Note that Egyptian Arabic has fewer pronouns than standard Arabic, since it has no dual pronouns; it just has plural pronouns that are used to talk about two or more people, of any gender. And the colloquial انتو and هم are gender-neutral.

Object pronouns

Object pronouns (me, you, us, him, her, them) are used when you do something directly to someone or something else. In Arabic, these pronouns are suffixes that are attached to the verb:
ضربته (Darabatu) She hit him.يشكروني (yaškuruuni) They thank me.

Object pronouns in standard and Egyptian Arabic

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic
Singular me
ـني (-ni)
you (masc.) ـكَ (-ka) ـك (-ak)
you (fem.) ـكِ (-ki) ـك (-ik)
ـه (-u)
ـها (-ha)
Dual us ـنا (-na)
you ـكما (-kuma)
them ـهما (-huma)
Plural us
ـنا (-na)
you (masc.) ـكم (-kum) ـكو\ـكم (-ku/-kum)
you (fem.) ـكن (-kunna)
them (masc.) ـهم (-hum) ـهم (-hom)
them (fem.) ـهن (-hunna)
Note: In colloquial Arabic, ـكو and ـكم are both used, but the former is more colloquial than the latter. Here are some examples of object pronoun usage, using the verb سأل (sa’al) – “to ask.”
English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic
Singular He asked me
سألني (sa’alni)
He asked you (masc.) سألكَ (sa’alaka) سألك (sa’alak)
He asked you (fem.) سألكِ (sa’alaki) سألك (sa’alik)
He asked him
سأله (sa’alahu [more standard] or sa’alu [more colloquial])
He asked her
سألها (sa’alaha [more standard] or sa’alha [more colloquial])
Dual He asked us سألنا (sa’alna)
He asked you سألكما (sa’alkuma)
He asked them سألهما (sa’alhuma)
Plural He asked us
سألنا (sa’alna)
He asked you (masc.) سألكم (sa’alkum) سألكو\ـكم (sa’alku/sa’alkum)
He asked you (fem.) سألكن (sa’alkunna)
He asked them (masc.) سألهم (sa’alhum) سألهم (sa’alhom)
He asked them (fem.) سألهن (sa’alhunna)

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