Spanish Classroom: Basic Spanish

Learn Spanish at the best Spanish Language centre  in Coimbatore. Starting from the basics the Spanish language course takes the students to the higher leves of leaning.

Basic Spanish Phrases

¡Buenos días! bway-nohs dee-ahs Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas tardes! bway-nahs tard-ays Good afternoon! ¡Buenas noches! bway-nahs noh-chays Good evening! / Good night!
¡Hola! / ¡Chao! oh-lah / chow Hi! / Bye! Adiós. ah-dee-ohs Good bye. Por favor. por fah-bor Please.
Hasta la vista / Hasta luego. ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go See you / See you later. Hasta pronto. ah-stah prohn-toh See you soon. Hasta mañana. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you tomorrow.
(Muchas) Gracias. (moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs  Thank you (very much). De nada. day nah-dah You’re welcome. Bienvenidos byen-veh-nee-dohs Welcome
Lo siento loh see-ehn-toh I’m sorry Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehr-dohn / dees-kool-peh Excuse me / Pardon me ¡Vamos! bah-mohs Let’s go!
¿Cómo está usted? koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted How are you? (formal) ¿Cómo estás? koh-moh ay-stahs  How are you? (informal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl  How’s it going?
Bien / Muy bien bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn  Good / Very good Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Bad / Very bad / OK Sí / No see / noh Yes / No
¿Cómo se llama usted? koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted What is your name? (formal) ¿Cómo te llamas? koh-moh tay yah-mahs  What is your name? (informal) Me llamo…  / Mi nombre es… may yah-moh  / mee nohm-breh ess My name is…
Mucho gusto. / Encantado. moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahn-tah-doh Nice to meet you. Igualmente. ee-guahl-mehn-tay Same here. / Same to you. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah Mister / Mrs. / Miss
¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ehs oo-sted  Where are you from? (formal) ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day eh-rehs  Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de… yoh soy day  I’m from…
¿Cuántos años tiene usted? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted  How old are you? (formal) ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays  How old are you? (informal) Yo tengo _____ años. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs  I am _____ years old.
¿Habla usted español? ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol Do you speak Spanish? (formal) ¿Hablas inglés? ah-blahs een-glehs Do you speak English? (informal) (No) Hablo… noh ah-bloh I (don’t) speak…
¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes? ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyen-dehs Do you understand? (formal / informal) (No) Entiendo. noh ehn-tyen-doh I (don’t) understand. Yo (no lo) sé. yoh noh loh seh I (don’t) know.
¿Puede ayudarme? pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh Can you help me? (formal) Claro / Claro que sí klah-roh / klah-roh keh see Sure / Of course ¿Cómo? koh-moh What? Pardon me?
¿Dónde está / Dónde están… ? dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh eh-stahn Where is … / Where are … ? Aquí / Ahí ah-kee / ah-ee Here / There Hay / Había… eye / ah-bee-ah There is / are… / There was / were…
¿Cómo se dice ____ en español? koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en eh-spahn-yol How do you say ____ in Spanish? ¿Qué es esto? keh ehs ehs-toh What is that? ¿Qué te pasa? keh teh pah-sah What’s the matter (with you)?
No importa. noh eem-por-tah It doesn’t matter. ¿Qué pasa? keh pah-sah What’s happening? Sin novedad. seen noh-veh-dahd Nothing much.
No tengo ninguna idea. noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah ee-deh-ah I have no idea. ¡Buena idea! bweh-nah ee-deh-ah Good idea! ¡Pase! pah-seh Go ahead!
Estoy cansado / enfermo. eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehr-moh I’m tired / sick. Tengo hambre / sed. tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed I’m hungry / thirsty. Tengo calor / frío. tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh I’m hot / cold.
Estoy aburrido. eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh I’m bored. No me importa. noh meh eem-por-tah I don’t care. No se preocupe. noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh Don’t worry
Está bien. ehs-tah bee-ehn That’s alright. / It’s ok. Me olvidé. meh ohl-vee-deh I forgot. Tengo que ir ahora. tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah I must go now.
¿Listo? lees-toh Ready? Quizás / Depende. kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh Maybe / It depends. Todavía no. toh-dah-vee-ah noh Not yet.
¡Qué chistoso! keh chees-toh-soh How funny! ¡Que le vaya bien! keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn Have a nice day! ¡Nos vemos! nohs veh-mos We’ll see you!
¡Salud! sah-lood Bless you! ¡Felicitaciones! feh-lee-see-tah-see-oh-nehs Congratulations! ¡Buena suerte! bweh-nah swehr-teh Good luck!
Te toca a ti. teh toh-kah ah tee It’s your turn. (informal) ¡Callate! kah-yah-teh Shut up! Te amo. tay ah-moh  I love you. (informal and singular)
Spanish Classes in Coimbatore
  1. Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. This is because there is more than one meaning to “you” in Spanish (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.)
  2. Encantado, cansado, enfermo, and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman, then the final o changes to a: encantada, cansada, enferma, and aburrida
  3. In Spain, as well as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Spanish language is called castellano instead of español.
  4. Por favor is often shortened to just porfa. Porfis can also be used (at least in Mexico) to mean pretty please.
  5. Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries, there are several regional dialects and accents so pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. This tutorial is mostly concerned with the standardized varieties that are spoken in Mexico and northern/central Spain, but will also include common variants from other countries and/or regions. (The southern region of Spain, Andalucía, and the Canary Islands, exhibit features that are closer to Latin American Spanish.)

Spanish Subject Pronouns

singular plural
first person yo yoh I nosotros nosotras noh-soh-trohs noh-soh-trahs we
second person vos too bohs you (informal) vosotros vosotras boh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trahs you (informal)
third person él ella usted ail ay-yah oo-sted he / it she / it you (formal) ellos ellas ustedes ay-yohs ay-yahs oo-sted-ays they (masculine) they (feminine) you (informal / formal)
latin american spanish
  1. The various pronouns meaning you can be tricky to use correctly in Spanish. The informal forms are used to show familiarity with other people, while the formal forms indicate social distance. There are many factors that determine the familiarity or formality, such as gender, age, location, social class, etc. In general, informal you is used with family members, friends, children, animals, etc. while formal you is reserved for those to whom you wish to show respect. These rules are not steadfast though, and there is a lot of variation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. For example, usted is used among family members in Colombia, whereas most other Spanish speakers would use or vos. It is best simply to listen to which pronoun is used in the variety of Spanish that you are most interested in learning to figure out when to use each one.
  2. The use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, either in addition to or in place of , is called voseo. Old Spanish used this pronoun in addition to , but it became somewhat stigmatized when the standardized language of Spain stopped using it. Various regions of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela use both and vos, while Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay (known together as the Río de la Plata region) and most of Central America use vos in place of . Although voseo rarely appears in Spanish textbooks, it is used in some form by a majority (about two-thirds) of the Spanish-speaking population.
  3. Because every noun in Spanish has a gender, there are two ways to express it. If the noun is masculine, use él, which also means he. If the noun is feminine, use ella, which also means she.
Spanish Classes
  1. Vosotros is the plural form of in northern and central Spain only, for informal you. Ustedes is the plural form of usted for formal you. Since vosotros is not used in the rest of the Spanish-speaking countries, Ustedes is both informal and formal plural you in these countries.
  2. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. or Vd. (from the phrase vuestra merced). Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. or Vds.
  3. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as does ellas. If there is a group of people that is mixed (both male and female), use the masculine forms: nosotros, vosotros and ellos.
  4. Subject pronouns are often only used for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity when the verb conjugation is the same for different people (such as él and usted.)

Spanish Nouns, Articles, Demonstratives

Masc. Singular Fem. Singular Masc. Plural Fem. Plural
the el la the los las
a, an un una some unos unas
this este esta these estos estas
that ese esa those esos esas
that aquel aquella those aquellos aquellas
Speak spanish like a native El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.  Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine, with a few exceptions: la mano (hand), la foto (photo). Words that end in -a are generally feminine, with a few exceptions: el mapa(map), el problema (problem). Other feminine words end in -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud. Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.  Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.  Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.  They can be used in general and abstract ways. Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun; if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns, which are used before a verb, add an accent on all of the first e’s: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas, ése, ésa, ésos, ésas, aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas.

Formation of Plural Nouns

  1. If a singular noun ends in a vowel, just add -s to make it plural: la casa → las casas
  2. If a singular noun ends in a consonant, a vowel with an accent, or y, add -es to make it plural: el papel → los papeles
  3. Singular nouns that end in -z change the z to c and add -es to form the plural: la luz → las luces
  4. A few nouns that have an accent in the singular will lose it in the plural and vice versa: la canción → las canciones, el examen → los exámenes (but notice that there is no change for el lápiz → los lápices)

Spanish Verbs Be and Have

ser – to be
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) soy I am fui era I was seré I will be
(tú / vos) eres / sos you are fuiste eras you were serás you will be
(él / ella) (usted) es es he / she / it is you are fue fue era era he / she / it was you were será será he / she / it will be you will be
(nosotros / -as) somos we are fuimos éramos we were seremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) sois you are fuisteis erais you were seréis you will be
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) son son they are you are fueron fueron eran eran they were you were serán serán they will be you will be
estar – to be
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) estoy I am estuve estaba I was estaré I will be
(tú / vos) estás you are estuviste estabas you were estarás you will be
(él / ella) (usted) está está he / she / it is you are estuvo estuvo estaba estaba he / she / it was you were estará estará he / she / it will be you will be
(nosotros / -as) estamos we are estuvimos estábamos we were estaremos we will be
(vosotros / -as) estáis you are estuvisteis estabais you were estaréis you will be
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) están están they are you are estuvieron estuvieron estaban estaban they were you were estarán estarán they will be you will be
tener – to have
present preterite imperfect future
(yo) tengo I have tuve tenía I had tendré I will have
(tú / vos) tienes / tenés you have tuviste tenías you had tendrás you will have
(él / ella) (usted) tiene tiene he / she / it has you have tuvo tuvo tenía tenía he / she / it had you had tendrá tendrá he / she / it will have you will have
(nosotros / -as) tenemos we have tuvimos teníamos we had tendremos we will have
(vosotros / -as) tenéis you have tuvisteis teníais you had tendréis you will have
(ellos / ellas) (ustedes) tienen tienen they have you have tuvieron tuvieron tenían tenían they had you had tendrán tendrán they will have you will have
Highlighted forms are only used in northern/central Spain. You do not need to use the subject pronouns unless you want to emphasize the person, or to avoid ambiguity. european spanish The conjugation for vos is usually only different from the conjugation in the present tense and the imperative (commands), though there can be differences in the preterite and subjunctive as well. Sometimes the present tense conjugation is identical to the tú conjugation (in which case, there will only be one form given in the conjugation charts). For the present tense conjugation of ser, in some regions of Chile, Colombia, and Cuba the vos conjugation is soi, whereas in some parts of Panama and Venezuela it is sois. A final -s may or may not be used for the vos conjugation in the preterite tense. There is a lot of variation in the vos conjugations, in addition to the use of the pronoun tú with a vos conjugation or the pronoun vos with a tú conjugation. Voseo is usually associated with Argentina but there are many more places in Latin America that use vos in some form so it is important to be aware of it. The difference between the preterite and imperfect tenses will be explained in Spanish II. In general, the preterite expresses a completed action in the past while the imperfect expresses a repeated or continuing action in the past. For now, just learn the forms for recognition purposes. Ser is used to identify or describe.  It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin.  Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.

Uses of Ser

Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo. La casa es grande. Carlos es pobre. Es carpintero. Son las tres. Los libros son de Juan. Es necesario. El teléfono fue inventado por Bell. The building is a temple. The house is large. Charles is poor. He is a carpenter. It’s three o’clock. The books are John’s. It is necessary. The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar

Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. La ventana está abierta. Juan está enfermo. Miguel está estudiando. The book is on the table. The window is open. John is sick. Michael is studying.
lessons in spanish Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring, while estar aburrido means to be bored. Others include: ser bueno – to be nice, estar bueno – to be in good health; ser callado – to be discrete, estar callado – to be silent; ser moreno – to have brown hair, estar moreno – to be tan.

Many common expressions using the verb “be” in English use the verb “tener” in Spanish (but not all):

to be afraid tener miedo to be in a hurry tener prisa, estar de prisa
to be against estar en contra to be jealous tener celos
to be at fault tener la culpa to be lucky tener suerte
to be careful tener cuidado to be patient tener paciencia
to be cold tener frío to be sleepy tener sueño
to be curious ser curioso/a to be successful tener éxito
to be fed up estar harto/a to be thirsty tener sed
to be happy estar contento/a to be tired estar cansado/a
to be hot tener calor to be ___ years old tener ___ años
to be hungry tener hambre
Tener is also used with the following expressions that use “have” in English: No tengo ni idea. I have no idea. ¿Tienes un resfriado? Do you have a cold? Tengo que irme. I have to go.

Spanish Question Words

what qué which cuál(es)
who quién(es) how much cuánto (-a)
how cómo how many cuántos (-as)
when cuándo whom a quién(es)
where dónde whose de quién(es)
why por qué

Spanish Days

Monday lunes loo-nays
Tuesday martes mar-tays
Wednesday miércoles mee-air-coh-lays
Thursday jueves hway-bays
Friday viernes bee-air-nays
Saturday sábado sah-bah-doh
Sunday domingo doh-ming-oh
day el día dee-ah
week la semana say-mahn-ah
weekend el fin de semana feen day say-mahn-ah
today hoy oy
tonight esta noche es-tah noh-chay
last night anoche ah-noh-chay
yesterday ayer eye-yair
tomorrow mañana mahn-yahn-ah
my birthday mi cumpleaños mee coom-play-ahn-yohs
next próximo / próxima prok-see-moh / mah
last pasado / pasada pah-sah-doh / dah
day before yesterday anteayer ahn-teh-eye-yair
day after tomorrow pasado mañana pah-sah-doh mahn-yahn-ah
the following day el día siguiente dee-ah see-gwee-ehn-teh
the day before la víspera vees-peh-rah

Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. The definite article is not used after the verb ser, but at all other times it is required and there is slight change in meaning if it is singular or plural: el lunes = on Monday but los lunes = on Mondays

Spanish Months of the Year

January enero ay-nair-oh
February febrero fay-bray-roh
March marzo mar-soh
April abril ah-breel
May mayo mi-oh
June junio hoo-nee-oh
July julio hoo-lee-oh
August agosto ah-gohs-toh
September septiembre sayp-tee-aim-bray
October octubre ohk-too-bray
November noviembre noh-bee-aim-bray
December diciembre dee-see-aim-bray
month el mes mais
first of [a month] el primero de [month] pree-mair-oh day _____
year el año ahn-yoh
decade la década deh-kah-dah
century el siglo see-gloh
millennium el milenio mee-leh-nee-oh
Best Spanish language Centre The preposition en is used with months: en abril = in April. Also notice that primero is used for the first of the month, but the rest of the days are referred to using the regular cardinal numbers: el primero de junio but el dos de julio. Months of the year are also all masculine and not capitalized in writing. ¿Cual es la fecha de hoy? What is today’s date? Hoy es el primero de agosto. Today is August 1st.

Spanish Seasons

spring la primavera in spring en primavera
summer el verano in summer en verano
winter el invierno in winter en invierno
autumn el otoño in autumn en otoño

Spanish Directions

to the right a la derecha
to the left a la izquierda
straight ahead todo derecho
north el norte northeast el noreste
south el sur northwest el noroeste
east el este southeast el sureste
west el oeste southwest el suroeste

Spanish Colors and Shapes

red rojo / roja circle el círculo 
pink rosado / rosada square el cuadrado
orange anaranjado / anaranjada rectangle el rectángulo
yellow amarillo / amarilla triangle el triángulo
green verde oval el óvalo
blue azul cube el cubo
light blue celeste sphere la esfera
purple morado / morada cylinder el cilindro
violet violeta cone el cono
brown marrón octagon el octágono
black negro / negra box la caja
gray gris pyramid la pirámide
white blanco / blanca
golden dorado / dorada dark oscuro / oscura
silver plateado / plateada light claro / clara

All adjectives in Spanish are placed after the noun that they describe and they agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun. Notice that some colors do not change for gender (marrón) or number (gris). To change an adjective to the feminine form, you usually just change the final -o to -a. To make an adjective plural, simply add an -s.

a red house = una casa roja

Spanish Time

¿Qué hora es? What time is it?
Es la una. It’s one.
Son las dos/tres/cuatro… It’s two/three/four…
Es mediodía. It’s noon.
Es medianoche. It’s midnight.
Son las cinco y cinco. It’s 5:05
Son las ocho y cuarto. It’s 8:15
Son las diez menos cuarto. It’s 9:45
Son cuarto para las diez. It’s 9:45 (common in Mexico)
Son las nueve menos diez. It’s 8:50
Son diez para las nueve. It’s 8:50 (common in Mexico)
Son las tres y media / treinta. It’s 3:30
de la mañana in the morning / AM
de la tarde in the afternoon / PM
de la noche in the evening / PM
en punto exactly / sharp
¿A qué hora? At what time?

Spanish Weather

¿Qué tiempo hace? What’s the weather like?
Hace buen tiempo. The weather’s nice.
Hace mal tiempo. The weather’s bad.
Hace frío. It’s cold.
Hace calor. It’s hot.
Hace sol. It’s sunny.
Hace viento. It’s windy.
Hace fresco. It’s chilly.
Está nublado. It’s cloudy.
Hay niebla. It’s foggy.
Hay neblina. It’s misty.
Hay humedad. It’s humid.
Hay granizo. It’s hailing.
Llueve. It’s raining.
Nieva. It’s snowing.
Truena. It’s thundering.
Llovizna. It’s sprinkling.

Spanish Family

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