Spanish Classes

1. Nouns – gender

In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine, whether they denote a person, a thing, a place or an idea.
Masculine nouns usually end in -o: el libro, el curso, el colegio Compound nouns (verb+noun) are always masculine: el cortaúñas, el rascacielos Many nouns that end in –ma (those of Greek origin) are masculine: el problema, el tema, el sistema. Exceptions to the rules include: la mano, la radio, la alarma, la pluma
Feminine nouns usually end in -a: la lengua, la casa, la escuela Nouns that end in -ción, -sión, or -ía are feminine: la conversación, la televisión, la economía So are the nouns ending in -dad, -tad, or -tud: la universidad, la amistad, la actitud… …and those ending in -umbre or -za: la costumbre, la pobreza Exceptions to the rules include: el día, el mapa, el sofá
Feminine nouns that begin with a stressed a or ha syllable use the masculine article in front of their singular forms, but the feminine article when in plural.
el agua, el aula, el alma, el área, el águila, el hacha, el hada but las aguas, las aulas, las almas, las áreas, las águilas, las hachas, las hadas
Some masculine nouns end in a consonant: el señor, el profesor and they have a corresponding feminine form that ends in -a: la señora, la profesora.
Some nouns have the same masculine and feminine forms. In these cases, the article indicates the gender: el estudiante – la estudiante, el artista – la artista.
Finally, there are nouns that can be both masculine and feminine, but have a different meaning depending on gender.
el frente (front) – la frente (forehead) el corte (cut) – la corte (court) el pendiente (earring) – la pendiente (slope)  el cortaúñas
la televisión


Nouns are used to name all sorts of things: people, animals, objects, places, ideas, emotions, feelings, virtues, defects. Examples of nouns in English: cat, dog, house, river, Richard, Santiago, Chile, boy, love, selfishness, courage, loyalty, etc.



In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. In most cases we can recognise from the word ending whether a noun is masculine or feminine.

2. Nouns – singular and plural

How to form the plural form of a Spanish noun depends on its ending. There are several different endings:
Nouns ending in a vowel get the ending -s.
perro – perros escuela – escuelas
Nouns ending in a consonant have the ending -es.
español – españoles doctor – doctores
Nouns ending in -z have it changed into c when the plural -es is added.
cruz – cruces voz – voces
Nouns ending in -ión or -és lose the accent when the plural -es is added.
acción – acciones francés – franceses
In some nouns, mostly compound, only the article changes: el lunes – los lunes, el paraguas – los paraguas, el rascacielos – los rascacielos.

Masculine Nouns

word feature example
noun ending with -o el trabajo
noun ending with -n el tren
noun ending with -aje el viaje
noun ending with -r el ordenador
noun ending with -ón el buzón
noun ending with -l el nivel
foreign noun ending with -ma el programa
male people el hombre
compass directions el norte
days of the week el lunes
months el enero
numerals el uno
names of bodies of water and mountains el Atlántico

Feminine Nouns

word feature example
noun ending with -a la ventana
noun ending with -d la libertad
noun ending with -z la cruz
noun ending with -ión la información
female people la mujer
islands Mallorca
city names ending with -a Barcelona
country names ending with -a España
letters of the alphabet la A

To Note

As with all rules, there are a few exceptions to this one. Therefore it’s best to learn each noun’s gender along with the noun.
In Spanish, nouns may be masculine or feminine. Unlike English, in Spanish even inanimate nouns are classified as masculine or feminine. You can usually tell whether a noun is masculine or feminine by its ending.
  • Nouns ending in ‘s’ are masculine: país, autobús, mes, compas
  • Nouns ending in ‘ma’ are masculine: puma, sistema, tema
  • Nouns ending in ‘r’, are masculine: motor, par, cráter
  • Nouns ending in ‘l’, are masculine: pastel, papel, redil, mantel
  • Nouns ending in ‘o’ are masculine: libro, niño, sueño, diccionario
  • Nouns ending in ‘n’ are masculine: jabón, jardín, capitán, atún
  • About 50% of nouns ending in ‘e’ are masculine: puente, diente, peine
Perhaps ‘SMARLONE’ will help you to remember the above!
  • Nouns ending in ‘a’ are feminine: niña, mesa, ventana
  • Nouns ending in ‘ción’ are feminine: canción, nación, situación
  • Nouns ending in ‘sión’ are feminine: profesión, posesión,
  • Nouns ending in ‘d’ are feminine: amistad, ciudad, voluntad
  • Nouns ending in ‘z’ are feminine: paz, cruz, luz
  • About 50% of nouns ending in ‘e’ are feminine:
  • Nouns ending in -ista can be masculine or feminine: turista, dentista, periodista.
  • Nouns ending in -ente can be masculine or feminine: gerente, cliente, dirigente.
  • Nouns ending in -ante can be masculine or feminine: visitante, agente, dibujante.

Singular and Plural Nouns in Spanish

Most Spanish nouns are either singular (one) or plural (several). The plural of nouns that end in a vowel (-a, -e, -i, -o, -u) is usually formed by adding an -s. Examples: silla/sillas; padre/padres; taxi/taxis; mango/mangos; Nouns that end in a consonant usually form the plural by adding -es. Examples: cartel/carteles; pared/paredes; joven/jóvenes Exceptions include nouns ending in -s or -x which have the same form in both singular and plural: Examples: virus/virus, tórax/tórax, crisis/crisis.

Orthographic rule

When a noun ends in -z, the plural is formed by changing -z to -ces. el lápiz, los lápices; la raíz, las raíces. Nouns ending in -í, -ú, -tonics, add -es. el colibrí, los colibríes; el bambú, los bambúes; el rubí, los rubíes. In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There several rules which help to identify a given object’s gender; for example, nouns that end in a – like “manzana” (apple) – are almost always feminine, while nouns that end in o – like “bolígrafo” (pen) – are almost always masculine. To make things even more interesting, each gender has its own set of articles, those little words – the, a, an, some – that essentially introduce a noun and say a little something about it. While in English you can simply apply the same articles – the, a, an, some – to all nouns, in Spanish there are distinctions between masculine and feminine as well as between singular and plural.

4. Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are words used instead of nouns to represent people or things.
Singular 1. yo (I) 2. (you) 3. él, ella, usted (he, she, You)
Plural 1. nosotros, nosotras (we) 2. vosotros, vosotras (you) 3. ellos, ellas, ustedes (they, You)
Spanish personal pronouns are similar to those in English, but note that there is no equivalent for the English it form – in Spanish all things are either masculine or feminine (él, ella).
La ciudad es bonita. Ella es bonita. The city is nice. It is nice.        El coche es nuevo. Él es nuevo. The car is new. It is new.
The English singular “you” exists in two forms in Spanish: (informal) and usted (formal). Similarly, there are two plural forms, vosotros (informal) and ustedes (formal). Note that these two formal forms – usted, ustedes (and their abbreviated forms, Ud/Vd andUds/Vds) – are followed by the verb conjugated in the 3rd person, not the 2nd.
Veo que tú escribes muy bien en inglés. I see you write very well in English. Veo que usted escribe muy bien en ingles. I see You write very well in English.
The vosotros form is used primarily in Spain. Throughout Latin America, the ustedes form is used to say “you” in both formal and informal contexts, and the verb conjugates as explained above.
¡Vosotros dos siempre llegáis tarde al colegio! (in Spain, talking to children) ¡Ustedes dos siempre llegan tarde al colegio! (in Latin America, talking to children) You two are always late for school! Con la tarjeta de fidelidad, ustedes pueden entrar a la zona VIP.(both in Spain and Latin America, talking to clients) With your membership card, You can access the VIP area.

Definite Articles / Artículos definidos

Definite articles (the) refer to a specific object (the apple or the pen). Check out a few examples:
Article – English Article – Spanish Noun – English Noun – Spanish
masculine, singular the el the pen el bolígrafo
masculine, plural the los the pens los bolígrafos
feminine, singular the la the apple la manzana
feminine, plural the las the apples las manzanas

Indefinite Articles / Artículos indefinidos

Indefinite articles (a, an, some), on the other hand, refer to an unspecified object (an apple or a pen ).
Article – English Article – Spanish Noun – English Noun – Spanish
masculine, singular a, an un a pen un bolígrafo
masculine, plural some unos some pens unos bolígrafos
feminine, singular a, an una an apple una manzana
feminine, plural some unas some apples unas manzanas

Spanish Gender and Articles

In Spanish, unlike English, all nouns (persons, places or things) are either masculine or feminine. The article (‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ in English) must change according to whether the noun that follows is masculine or feminine. It must also agree with the number of the noun – whether it is singular or plural:
Definite article (‘the’) Indefinite article (‘a’ or ‘an’)
el masculine singular un masculine singular
la feminine singular una feminine singular
los masculine plural unos masculine plural
las feminine plural unas feminine plural
Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules to tell you which gender a noun should be and most simply need to be learnt. However, here are some guidelines to show you some common patterns. Nouns denoting male people and animals are usually but not always masculine:
el hombre the man
el toro the bull
un enfermero a (male) nurse
Nouns denoting female people and animals are usually but not always feminine:
la niña the girl
la vaca the cow
una enfermera a (female) nurse
Some nouns are masculine or feminine depending on the sex of the particular person to whom they refer:
el/un médico the/a (male) doctor
la/una médico the/a (female) doctor
el/un belga the/a (male) Belgian
la/una belga the/a (female) Belgian (NB nationalities are not capitalized in Spanish, but nations are.)
A noun ending in –ista can be masculine or feminine, depending on whether it refers to a male or female:
el artista the (male) artist
la artista the (female) artist
el pianista the (male) pianist
la pianista the (female) pianist
Similarly, a noun ending in –nte can be masculine or feminine, depending on whether you are talking about a male or female:
el estudiante the (male) student
la estudiante the (female) student
el presidente the (male) president
la presidente the (female) president
Some nouns can refer to men or women but have only one gender, whether the person is male or female:
la/una persona the/a person
la/una víctima the/a victim
la/una estrella the/a star
Although you’re likely to be understood by Spanish speakers if you use the wrong genders, there are some instances where it could cause a great deal of confusion. A few nouns change their meaning radically, depending on whether they are masculine or feminine, so they’re well worth learning. Here are some of the more common examples:
Masculine Feminine
el capital capital (money) la capital capital (city)
un corte a cut una corte a court (royal)
un cura a priest una cura a cure (medical)
el moral the mulberry tree la moral morals
el papa the Pope la papa the potato
un policía a policeman la policía the police (force)
el radio the radius la radio the radio

5. Adjectives

Adjectives are used to describe a noun. In Spanish, most adjectives change, agreeing with the noun in number and gender, which means they can be masculine or feminine, singular or plural. When descriptive adjectives end in -o, their feminine form ends in -a, and the plural adds the -s.
el chico educado the polite boy los chicos educadosthe polite boys (and girls) la chica educadathe polite girl las chicas educadasthe polite girls
In most cases when adjectives in Spanish end in -e or in a consonant, they don’t change in gender, only in number.
el chico inteligentethe intelligent boy     los chicos inteligentes – the intelligent boys (and girls) la chica inteligentethe intelligent girl  las chicas inteligentes the intelligent girls un profesor joven a young (male) teacher unos profesores jóvenessome young teachers una profesora joven – a young (female) teacher unas profesoras jóvenes – some young (female) teachers
However, there are some adjectives ending in a consonant whose feminine forms do change, typically those ending in -dor, -tor,-ín, -ón, -án: hablador – habladora, galán – galana, etc. Whereas in English adjectives precede the noun they describe, in Spanish it is usually the opposite, i.e. the adjective is placed after the noun it refers to.
Mi profesora de inglés es una mujer alta. My English teacher is a tall woman. Llegaron en una furgoneta azul. They arrived in a blue van. 
Exceptions to this rule of placement are when talking about:
  • Limiting adjectives referring to amount: Hago menos ejercicio que ella. I do less exercise than her.
  • Inherent, essential quality: La blanca nieve anuncia la Navidad. The white snow announces Christmas.
  • Opinionated, emotional attachment: Maria es mi vieja vecina – Maria is my long-time neighbour, whereas Maria es mi vecina vieja would mean Maria is my elderly neighbour.

6. Verb types -ar/-er/-ir

In Spanish, there are three verb categories. Depending on their ending, they belong to:
Type I: -ar (hablar)
Type II: -er (comer)
Type III: -ir (vivir)
In present tense, all regular verbs drop the –ar, -er, -ir endings and and get the following endings:
-AR verbs (habl+)
o, as, a, amos, áis, an
-ER verbs (com+)
o, es, e, emos, éis, en
-IR verbs (viv+)
o, es, e, imos, ís, en
Their conjugation looks like this: Yo -> hablo, como, vivo Tú -> hablas, comes, vives Él/ella/usted -> habla, come, vive Nosotros -> hablamos, comemos, vivimos Vosotros -> habláis, coméis, vivís Ellos/ellas/ustedes -> hablan, comen, viven
The pronoun can be used to emphasise who the doer of the action is, but it is not necessary, as it is clear from the verb ending.
Tú hablas muy rápido. Hablas muy rápido. You speak very fast. Ellos nunca comen tarde. Nunca comen tarde. They never eat late. Nosotros vivimos en Finlandia desde hace 5 años. Vivimos en Finlandia desde hace 5 años. We have been living in Finland for 5 years.

7. Verbs ser, estar, hay

In Spanish, there are different ways to say that something exists or is located somewhere. It is important to know when to use ser, estar or hay, when in English the verb “to be” would be used.
Ser and estar have irregular present tense forms and conjugate as shown:
ser (to be)
estar (to be)
The key difference between ser and estar is one of essence and condition. In other words, to say what something is, use ser, but to say how something is, use estar.
Sonia es artista. Sonia is an artist. Fran está enfermo. Fran is ill.
To tell where something is from, use ser, but to tell where something is located now, useestar.
Heidi y Johan son de Alemania, pero ahora están en Suecia. Heidi and Johan are from Germany, but they are now in Sweden.
Hay is the impersonal form of the Spanish verb haber (to be, to have). It means there is orthere are. It can be followed by a singular or a plural noun without any change in its form. Its position in the sentence is rather flexible, too.
Sólo hay un cine en esta ciudad. There is only one cinema in this town. Hay muchos libros en la estantería. There are a lot of books on the shelf. ¿Hay algún problema? Is there a problem? En esta aula no hay sillas. There aren’t any chairs in this classroom.

Sentences Using Ser

Spanish Pronouns

Subject Pronouns in Spanish

The subject pronouns in Spanish are:
Singular Plural
1st Person yo nosotros, nosotras
2nd Person tú, usted vosotros, vosotras, ustedes
3rd Person él, ella ellos, ellas
1st Person = the person who is speaking 2nd Person = the person you are speaking to or listening to 3rd Person = the person you are talking about An explanation of what each Personal Pronoun is:
Personal Pronoun Situation
Yo I = it refers to yourself
You = the person you are speaking to – informal (family or friend)
Vos You = you in Argentina
Usted You = the person you are speaking to – formal (respect, older people)
Él He = man or boy (another person)
Ella She = woman or girl (another person)
Nosotros * We = tú + yo OR Usted + yo
Nosotras * We (fem) = tú + yo OR Usted + yo (both are women / girls)
Vosotros You = tú + tú (this is not used much in Latin America)
Vosotras You (fem) = tú + tú (only women – this is not used much in Latin America)
Ellos ** They = él + él OR él + ella
Ellas ** They (fem) = ella + ella (only women or girls)
Ustedes You = Usted + Usted (= tú + tú in Latin America)

* Nosotros vs Nosotras

There are two ways of saying “We” in Spanish depending on who is speaking or in the “group”. If there is at least one man (or boy) in the “group” of people, then “We” will be Nosotros in Spanish. If there are only women (or girls) in the group, and no men, then “We” will be Nosotras in Spanish. You (man) + Man = Nosotros (= yo + él) You (man) + Woman = Nosotros (= yo + ella) You (woman) + Man = Nosotros (= yo + él) You (woman) + Woman = Nosotras (= yo + ella)

** Ellos vs Ellas

The same applies to “They” (ellos or ellos). If there is one or more men in the group, then it will be ellos. If everyone in the group is female, then you would use ellas.

Subject Pronouns in Spanish – Summary Charts

Spanish Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns in Spanish Chart
 Subject Pronouns
Every sentence has a subject. The subject of the sentence is who or what is doing the action in the sentence or is being described. In English, the subject pronouns are I, you, he/she/it, we, they. In Spanish there are several other forms of these subject pronouns. As with many other grammatical forms, there are different gender forms of pronouns.
English Subject Singular Pronoun Spanish Subject Singular Pronoun English Subject Plural Pronoun Spanish Subject Plural Pronoun
I yo We nosotros (masculine or mixed gender group) nosotras (feminine)
you tú (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) ustede (formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) you (as in all of you) ustedes (used in Latin American countries for both formal and informal, used in Spain for formal) vosotros (informal masculine and mixed gender groups -used in Spain) vosotras (informal feminine – used in Spain)
he she él ella they ellos (masculine or mixed gender group) ellas (feminine group)

Direct Object of Preposition Pronouns

English Direct Object of Preposition Singular Pronoun Spanish Direct Object of Preposition Singular Pronoun English Direct Object of Preposition Plural Pronoun Spanish Direct Object of Preposition Plural Pronoun
I We nosotros (masculine or mixed gender group) nosotras (feminine)
you ti (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) usted (formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) you (as in all of you) ustedes (used in Latin American countries for both formal and informal, used in Spain for formal) vosotros (informal masculine and mixed gender groups -used in Spain) vosotras (informal feminine – used in Spain)
he she él ella they ellos (masculine or mixed gender group) ellas (feminine group)
  • If the pronoun “mi” is used with the preposition “con” the word conmigo is used instead.
  • If the pronoun “ti” is used with the preposition “con” the word contigo is used instead.
  • If the pronoun in the preposition refers back to the subject of the sentence, use the word consigo – otherwise use the regular prepositional pronouns.
There are several prepositions that use the subject pronouns rather than the prepositional pronouns with prepositions. They are:
  • entre – between
  • excepto – except
  • incluso – including
  • menos – except
  • según – according to
  • salvo – except

Direct Object Pronouns

The object that directly gets or receives the action of the verb is called the direct object. If that direct object noun is replaced by a pronoun, it is a direct object pronoun.
English Direct Object Singular Pronoun Spanish Direct Object Singular Pronoun English Direct Object Plural Pronoun Spanish Direct Object Plural Pronoun
me me us nos
you te (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) lo, la(formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) you (as in all of you) os (informal) los, las (formal masculine and mixed gender groups -used in Spain)
he she lo la them los (masculine or mixed gender group) las (feminine group)
  The direct object pronoun comes before the verb in most cases. If the sentence is negative, the pronoun comes between the negative word (“no”) and the verb. When there are two verbs – for example the conjugated verb and an infinitive, you can correctly write it two ways. You can put the direct object pronoun in front of the conjugated verb or attach it to the end of the infinitive. Lo necessito ver. – I must see it. Necissito verlo. – I must see it.

Direct Object Pronouns

First of all you must remember that a direct object in a sentence is the person, event or thing affected by the verb. The main difference between the use of the direct object pronouns in Spanish and English is their placement. While in English they substitute the direct object (and its article) and are placed where the original object was, in Spanish this pronoun is placed in front of the verb, replacing also any article used with the object previously.
Me (me) Nos (us)
Te (you) Os (you [all])
*Lo/la (him/her/it) *Los/las (them: masculine/feminine/neuter)

 *The pronouns ‘le’ or ‘les’ are sometimes used as direct object pronouns. Its use carry some subtle differences in meaning.

 Some examples:
Direct objectexpressed (Tú) llevas el libro You take/carry the book
 Direct objectpronoun  (Tú) lo llevas You take/carry it
 Direct objectexpressed  Ella rompe la silla She breaks the chair
 Direct objectpronoun  Ella la rompe She breaks it
 Direct objectexpressed  Ustedes secuestran losperros You [all] kidnap the dogs
 Direct objectpronoun  Ustedes los secuestran  You [all] kidnap them
 Direct objectexpressed  El interrumpe la fiesta He interrupts the party
 Direct objectpronoun  El la interrumpe He interrupts it

Indirect Object Pronouns

The indirect object tells “To whom?” or “For whom?” the action of the verb is performed.
English Indirect Object Singular Pronoun Spanish Indirect Object Singular Pronoun English Indirect Object Plural Pronoun Spanish Indirect Object Plural Pronoun
me me us nos
you te (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) le (formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) you (as in all of you) os (informal) les (formal masculine and mixed gender groups -used in Spain)
he she le them les
The indirect object pronoun comes before the verb in most cases. If the sentence is negative, the pronoun comes between the negative word (“no”) and the verb. When there are two verbs – for example the conjugated verb and an infinitive, you can correctly write it two ways. You can put the indirect object pronoun in front of the conjugated verb or attach it to the end of the infinitive. Le volvo dar un libro Volvo darle un libro.

Basic Spanish Pronouns

Indirect Object Pronouns

An indirect object is usually a person receiving the direct object. The pronouns in Spanish are basically the same as the ones used for the direct objects, with the exception of the third person. It is important to remember that in Spanish, anytime that an indirect object is expressed, the pronoun must be present even if the indirect object is expressed in some other way (i.e., prepositional clause).
Me (me) Nos (us)
Te (you) Os (you [all])
Le/se (him/her/it) Les/se (them)
As you see, we have one that can be used only for the singular (le), one used only for the plural (les), and yet another one (se) that can be used for both! Nevertheless, the ‘se‘ form is used only when the direct object pronoun is also used for reasons that seem to be primarily aesthetic (such as the use of the ‘n’ with the indefinite article in English: “an apple” vs. “a apple”). Although you’ll see the pesky ‘se’ everywhere in standard writing in Spanish (i.e., newspaper articles, literature, manuals, etc.), you should be aware that there are many uses of ‘se’, and that it’s not always used as an indirect object pronoun. Just click here to see some other uses. First, let’s see a few examples where we substitute the indirect object without using the direct object pronoun, and then we’ll see how these two pronouns act together.
With prepositional clause (Tú) Le das el libro aPedro You give the book toPedro
No prepositional clause (Tú) Le das el libro You give him the book [incorrect to express a prepositional clause].
With prepositional clause  Yo te doy el libro [a ti: redundant/emphasis] I give the book to you
No prepositional clause  Yo te doy el libro I give you the book.
  Note how in both languages we can use the prepositional clause to know who is receiving the book. The prepositional clause is mainly used for clarification or for emphasis. Generally, in Spanish the prepositional clause is used at the end, whereas in English it would be incorrect to use it sometimes, as in the second sentence. In that case, we can identify the indirect object by using the name: “You give Pedrothe book.”

Using the Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns at the Same Time

When both pronouns are used, they will continue to be placed in front of the verb (linguists say that these pronouns become part of the verb). The order a declarative sentence will follow when both pronouns are present is: subject-indirect object pronoun-direct object pronoun-verb, or SIODOV for short. Remember that you might not see the subject expressed at the beginning of the sentence due to the fact that it is implied in the verb. However, a personal pronoun or name of the subject could be placed at the beginning of the sentence.
  • Direct object
  • Indirect object
(Yo) te doy el libro [a ti] I give the book to you
(Yo) te lo doy I give it to you [I give you it]
(Nosotros) les damos el libro a lasniñas We give the book to the girls
(Nosotros) se lo damos We give it to them

Direct Object and Indirect Object Pronouns in the Same Sentence

When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. Yo le los doy. – I gave them to him.

Possessive Pronouns

English Possessive Singular Pronoun Spanish Possessive Singular Pronoun English Possessive Plural Pronoun Spanish Possessive Plural Pronoun
mine el mío / la mía los míos / las mías ours el nuestro / la nuestra los nuestros / las nuestras
your, yours el tuyo / la tuya los tuyos / las tuyas (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) l suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas (formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) yours (as in all of you) el vuestro / la vuestra los vuestros / las vuestras (Familiar) el suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas (Formal)
his hers l suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas theirs el suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas
  This list differs slightly in usage from possessive pronoun/adjectives. The list is here:
English Singular Pronoun – Adjectives Spanish Singular Pronoun – Adjectives English Plural Pronoun – Adjectives Spanish Plural Pronoun – Adjectives
my mi/mis our nuestro – nuestra nuestros – nuestras
your, yours tu/tus (familiar form used with friends, co-workers, children) su/sus (formal form used with superiors, strangers, children to adults) yours (as in all of you) vuestro – vuestra vuestros – vuestras (Familiar) el suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas (Formal)
his her su/sus theirs su – sus
Here are several sample sentences to show the difference in usage; Mi gato es bonito. – My cat is pretty. (Possessive adjective – pronoun in which my describes the noun cat) El mio es bonito – Mine is pretty. (The possessive pronoun mine alone with cat inferred). Another way one can express possession is to say: El gato es de ella. – The cat is hers. Notice that the article is not in front of the ella.

Present Tense in Spanish

Spanish Grammar Rules: El Presente Indicativ

In Spanish, verbs are classified into three types.
  • Verbs ending in -AR,
  • Verbs ending in -ER
  • Verbs ending in -IR.

Spanish Regular Verbs in Present Tense

With regular verbs in Spanish, only the ending part of that verb (the -ar, -er or -ir part) changes depending on who does the action. However, unlike English, there is a different ending for each subject (pronoun). To begin, we will show you how to conjugate the verb in the present tense: (Notice how the part of the verb in red is the part that changes) Present Tense Verbs in Spanish - Conjugation Before you continue reading, make sure you know about Subject Pronouns in Spanish (yo, tú, él etc.). If you have the verb Hablar (to speak) and you want to say “I speak”. You just remove the last two letters of the verb (in this case remove the -ar) and add the letter -O to the end to create the conjugated verb Hablo which means “I speak”. Another example: if you want to say “They eat”, we take the original verb, in this case Comer, we remove the ending (-er) and then add -EN to the end (because ellos = they). We now have Comen (they eat). You will notice that certain verb endings are repeated. For example for YO (I) we take off the ending for all regular verbs and add the -O to the root (main part) of the verb. Also see how the only difference between -ER verbs and -IR verb endings is when we use nosotros (we) andvosotros (you/plural/informal). The subject pronoun (yo, tú, nosotros etc.) is often omitted before the verb since we normally know who the subject (the person doing the action) is because of the verb’s ending. For example: If you say “Hablamos español” (we speak Spanish). You don’t need to put the pronoun nosotros before the verb because we know that when we say hablamos, it refers to nosotros (we). So often you will hear or just read “Hablamos español” without the pronoun nosotros.

 Basic Spanish Conversation Phrases

Conversational Phrases

Hola! (Hello). Estas listo para aprender Espanol? (Are you ready to learn some Spanish?). In this lesson, we will go over some basic phrases that are commonly used in Spanish.


Let’s begin by looking at some common casual and formal greetings.

Casual Greetings

  • Hola! (Hello)
  • Como estas? (How are you?)
  • Como te va? (How’s it going?)
  • Que tal? (What’s up?)
  • Que pasa? (What’s happening?)

Formal greetings

  • Como esta usted? (How are you?)
  • Buenas tardes (Good evening, but also Good afternoon)
  • Buenos dias (Good morning)
  • Buenas noches (Good night)

Good Bye

Okay, now that we know some formal and informal ways to greet someone in Spanish, let’s practice some ways to say good bye.


  • Nos vemos (See you later)
  • Hasta luego (later)
  • Adios (Bye)


  • Adios (Bye)
  • Que pase un buen dia (Have a nice day)
  • Hasta pronto (See you soon)

Example 1

Now, let’s practice what we learned by paying attention to a conversation among two friends, Shirley and Erick. Shirley: Hola (hello) Erick! Erick: Hola (hello) Shirley! Como estas? (How are you?) Shirley: Bien, gracias. (Fine, thank you) Erick: Como esta tu familia? (How is your family?) Shirley: Todos bien. (Everyone is well). Y tu familia? (and your family) Erick: Bien también (Fine as well). Shirley: Que vas a hacer hoy, Erick? (What are you doing today?) Erick: Nada (nothing). Y tu? (and you?) Shirley: Voy a estudiar un poco. ( I am going to study a little bit) Erick:Bueno, me tengo que ir (well, I have to go). Nos vemos (see you later). Shirley: Adios (bye).

Miscellaneous Phrases

Now let’s look at some basic miscellaneous Spanish questions.
  • Tengo hambre (I am hungry)
  • Tengo sed (I am thirsty)
  • Estoy aburrido (I am bored)
  • Tengo sueno (I am sleepy)
  • Estoy cansado (I am tired)
  • Mi comida favorita es la pizza (My favorite food pizza)
  • Yo quiero ir al cine (I want to go to the movies)
  • Yo no quiero ir al cine (I don’t want to go to the movies)
  • Tengo tarea (I have homework)
  • No tengo tarea (I don’t have homework)
  • Tienes tarea? (Do you have homework?)
  • No entiendo ( I don’t understand)
  • Entiendo (I understand)
  • Entiendo un poco (I understand a little)

Example 2

Now let’s practice again. This time we will be paying attention to a conversation that a family has during lunch. Axel: mama, tengo hambre (mom, I am hungry) Mom: Entiendo (I understand), I am serving the food already. Clarice: mama, tengo sed (Mom, I am thirsty) Mom: Clarice, sirvete (Clarice, serve yourself), I am busy getting the food ready, Sweetheart. Dad: Axel, tienes tarea? (Axel, do you have homework?) Axel: Si, papa. (yes, dad) Dad: Y tu Clarice, tienes tarea? (And you Clarice, do you have homework?) Clarice: No tongue tarea papa (I don’t have homework dad) Axel: Mom, what are we eating? Mom: Quesadillas Axel: Ah, I wanted pizza, mi comida favorite es la pizza (my favorite food is pizza) Mom: Si Axel, lo se (Yes Axel, I know) Well done! Hasta pronto (see you later).

Example 3

Now, let’s do this last one! Let’s look at a conversation between Franco and Cindy. Franco: Como estuvo tu dia, Cindy? (How was your day, Cindy?) Cindy: no muy bien (not so well). Estoy bien cansada ( I am really tired).Y tu, Franco? (And you, Franco?). Como estuvo tu día (How was your day?). Franco: Yo tuve un buen día (I had a good day). Cindy: Tienes planes para este fin de semana? (Do you have plans for this weekend?). Franco: Si (Yes). Voy a ir al juego de Basquetbol (I am going to the Basketball game). Cindy: Que padre (Cool). Franco: Y tu, Cindy? (And you, Cindy?). Cindy: Yo voy ir a visitar a mi familia el Sabado (I am going to visit my family on Saturday), y el Domingo voy a ir al parque (and Sunday I am going to the park). Franco: y a la Iglesia (and to church on Sunday).

Spanish Phrases for Travelers

Greetings, Basic Manners, and Useful Words

Buenos días (Good morning, pronounced: boo-eh-nos dee-ahs) Buenas tardes (Good afternoon, pronounced: boo-eh-nas taar-dehs) Buenas noches (Good evening/good night, pronounced: boo-eh-nas noh-ches) Hola (Hello, pronounced: oh-lah) Hasta luego (So long, pronounced: ahs-tah loo-eh-goh). This is to say bye when you expect to see someone later on, such as your hotel receptionist. Say adiós (Good bye, pronounced: ah-dee-os) when you are saying ‘bye’ for good. Also, Spanish speakers say chao (bye, pronounced: chah-oh) to mean ‘see you later’, ‘see you soon’, or ‘bye’. Mucho gusto (Glad to meet you, pronounced: moo-choh goose-toh) Permiso (Excuse me, pronounced: pehr-mee-soh). This is to ask people to get out of the way. Disculpe (Sorry, pronounced: dees-kool-peh). This is when you have accidentally bumped someone or any other similar situation. Por favor (Please, pronounced: pohr fah-bor) Gracias (Thanks, pronounced: grah-see-ahs) De nada (You’re welcome, pronounced: deh nah-dah ¿Habla inglés? (Do you speak English?, pronounced: ah-blah een-glehs) Useful words you need to know are: el aeropuerto (the airport, pronounced: ehl ah-eh-roh-poo-ehr-toh) el pasaje (the ticket, pronounced: ehl pah-sah-heh). Note that, in Spain, people say el billete instead, which is pronounced: ehl bee-yeh-teh) el pasaporte (the passport, pronounced: ehl pah-sah-pohr-teh) el viaje (the trip, pronounced: ehl bee-ah-heh) las vacaciones (the vacation, pronounced: lahs bah-kah-see-ohnehs)

At the Hotel

¿Cuánto cuesta la habitación? (How much is the room? pronounced: Koo-ahn-toh koo-ehs-tah la ah-bee-tah-see-on)The word ‘hotel’ is spelled exactly the same in Spanish and is pronounced ‘oh-tel’. These are useful phrases in hotels: ¿Incluye desayuno? (Does it include breakfast? pronounced: een-kloo-yeh deh-sah-yoo-noh) ¿Incluye impuestos? (Does it include taxes? pronounced: een-kloo-yeh eem-poo-es-tos) Necesito una habitación para fumadores (I need a room for smokers, pronounced: neh-seh-see-toh oo-nah ah-bee-tah-see-on pah-rah foo-mah-doh-res). Necesito una cama extra (I need an extra bed, pronounced: neh-seh-see-toh oo-nah kah-mah eks-trah) ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? (Can I pay with credit card?, pronounced: poo-eh-doh pah-gar kohn taar-heh-tah deh kreh-dee-toh) Tip: Note that the question ¿Cuánto cuesta? (How much is it?) is useful in many situations. For instance, if you are shopping and you want to find out the price of anything, all you have to do is ask this question while pointing at what you want to buy.

At a Restaurant

The word ‘restaurant’ is restaurante in Spanish. The pronunciation is ‘rehs-tah-oo-rahn-teh’. These are useful phrases in restaurants: Una mesa, por favor (A table, please, pronounced: oo-nah meh-sah pohr fah-bor). If you wish to ask for a table for two, three, or more people, add the following expression with the number in Spanish that represents the number in your party: para dos (for two), para tres (for three), etc. after saying una mesa. For instance, una mesa para dos, por favor. ¿Puedo ver el menú, por favor? (Can I see the menu, please?, pronounced: poo-eh-doh vehr el meh-noo pohr fah-bor) While you could just point at what you wish to have on the menu, the following words are useful when ordering: Para la entrada, quiero… followed by the name of the dish you see on the menu. (For an appetizer, I want…, pronounced: pah-rah la ehn-trah-dah kee-eh-roh).

Spanish Irregular Verbs in Present Tense

The following verbs are only irregular in the first person (singular). The rest of the conjugations are as normal (see regular verbs above). I.- First Person Verbs ending in -Y The following verbs are a part of this group: Estar (to be) – Dar (to give)
Subject Estar
Yo estoy
Él está
Ella está
Usted está
Nosotros / Nosotras estamos
Vosotros / Vosotras estáis
Ellos / Ellas están
Ustedes están
  • Yo estoy feliz. (I am happy)
  • Yo estoy en mi casa. (I’m at home)
  • Yo doy propinas (I give tips).
II.- First Person Verbs ending in -GO The following verbs are a part of this group: Hacer (to do) – Poner (to put) – Salir (to go out) – Valer (to cost/be worth)
Subject Hacer
Yo hago
Él hace
Ella hace
Usted hace
Nosotros / Nosotras hacemos
Vosotros / Vosotras hacéis
Ellos / Ellas hacen
Ustedes hacen
  • Yo hago mis tareas (I do my homework).
  • Yo pongo la leche en el refrigerador.
  • Yo salgo con mis amigos. (I go out with my friends)
  • Yo valgo mucho (I’m worth it)
III.- First Person Verbs ending in -ZCO Verbs that end in -cir and -cer change to -zco in third person. The following verbs are a part of this group: Conducir(to drive) – Conocer (to know) – Traducir (to translate)
Subject Conducir
Yo conduzco
Él conduce
Ella conduce
Usted conduce
Nosotros / Nosotras conducimos
Vosotros / Vosotras conducís
Ellos / Ellas conducen
Ustedes conducen
  • Yo conduzco mi coche. (I drive my car)
  • Yo conozco a muchas personas. (I know many people)
  • Yo traduzco canciones. (I translate songs)
Remember these verbs are only irregular in the first person (singular), the rest of the verb has the same rules as regular present tense conjugations.

Spanish Verbs that have Stem Changes

There are four types of verbs where the stem of the verb is irregular and changes. In the present tense these are verbs that change their stem from O to UE, from U to UE, E to IE, and E to I. Note that this stem change does nothappen when the verb is for nosotros o vosotros (these maintain the original stem of the verb). I.- Stem changes from O to UE The letter “O” in the stem of the infinitive verb changes to “UE” in the conjugations.
Subject Almorzar
Yo Almuerzo
Él Almuerza
Ella Almuerza
Usted Almuerza
Nosotros / Nosotras Almorzamos
Vosotros / Vosotras Almorzáis
Ellos / Ellas Almuerzan
Ustedes Almuerzan
  • Yo almuerzo con mis amigos. (I have lunch with my friends)
  • Tú almuerzas todos los días en un restaurante. (You have lunch in a restaurant every day)
  • Ellos almuerzan comida chilena. (They have Chilean food for lunch)
II.- Stem changes from E to IE The letter “E” in the stem of the infinitive verb changes to “IE” in the conjugations.
Subject Sentir
Yo siento
Él siente
Ella siente
Usted siente
Nosotros / Nosotras sentimos
Vosotros / Vosotras sentís
Ellos / Ellas sienten
Ustedes sienten
  • Ellos sienten frío. (She feels cold)
  • Tú sientes un dolor de cabeza. (You have a headache)
  • Él siente una presencia. (He feels a presence)
III.- Stem changes from E to I The letter “E” in the stem of the infinitive verb changes to “I” in the conjugations.
Subject Pedir
Yo pido
Él pide
Ella pide
Usted pide
Nosotros / Nosotras pedimos
Vosotros / Vosotras pedís
Ellos / Ellas piden
Ustedes piden
  • Yo pido una bebida. (I ask for a drink)
  • Usted pide un vaso de agua. (You ask for a glass of water)
  • El animador pide un aplauso para el artista. (The presenter asks for applause for the artist)
IV.- Stem changes from U to UE The letter “U” in the stem of the infinitive verb changes to “UE” in the conjugations. Note that the verb Jugar is the only verb that is irregular in this way.
Subject Jugar
Yo juego
Él juega
Ella juega
Usted juega
Nosotros / Nosotras jugamos
Vosotros / Vosotras jugáis
Ellos / Ellas juegan
Ustedes juegan
  • Yo juego en mi pieza. (I play in my room)
  • Tú juegas fútbol. (You play football)
  • Usted juega baloncesto. (You play basketball)

Prepositions of Place

Spanish Grammar Rules

Prepositions of Place in Spanish A preposition of place is used to show the relationship of two or more things in regards to location or position. When translating To Be + Preposition in English (e.g. The dog is next to the tree), the verb Estar (in its correct form) is used before the preposition of place. (e.g. El perro está al lado del árbol).

Position of the preposition

In English a preposition sometimes appears at the end of a sentence, however in Spanish it is NOT possible to end a sentence with a preposition. Prepositions in Spanish are always followed by an object (a noun or pronoun).
  • preposition of place + object
See the examples that appear below.

Prepositions of Place in Spanish with examples

al lado de = next to / beside
  • Al lado de mi casa hay una farmacia.
  • Ana trabaja al lado de un hermoso parque.
alrededor de = around
  • Los niños están jugando alrededor del árbol.
  • Hay anillos alrededor de la planeta Saturno.
cerca de = near / close to
  • Cerca de tu casa hay un centro comercial.
  • Claudia vive cerca de una carretera.
debajo de = below / under
  • Tus zapatos están debajo de ese mueble.
  • Al él no le importa si tiene que pasar debajo de la escalera.
delante de (= frente a / enfrente de) = in front of / before / ahead of
  • Delante de José hay un hombre que habla mucho.
  • No me gusta que caminen lento delante de mi.
dentro de = in / inside / within
  • Hay una sorpresa dentro de la caja.
  • Sus llaves están dentro de la cartera.
detrás de = behind
  • Detrás de ti hay un zombi.
  • En la casa que está detrás del cerro hay unos lindos rosales.
en (= dentro de) = in / inside
  • Nosotros vivimos en Chile.
  • Alfredo está acostado en su cama.
en (= sobre) = on / on top of
  • La cómida ya está en la mesa.
  • Hay un reloj grande en la pared.
encima de = sobre = above / over / on / on top of
  • El perro está encima de la cama otra vez.
  • Nicolás está durminedo encima de la alfombra.
enfrente de = in front of /opposite
  • Enfrente del colegio hay un edificio enorme.
  • Pablo se sentó enfrente de Diego.
entre = between / among / in the midst of
  • La farmacia esta entre la botillería y la carnicería.
  • Puedes estacionarte entre esos dos carros.
frente a (= delante de algo / enfrente de) = in front of / opposite (facing)
  • Cristina está sentada frente a Paula.
  • El hospital está frente al supermercado
fuera de = outside
  • El perro está fuera de la casa.
  • Los niños durante su recreo juegan fuera de la sala de clases.
lejos de = far from
  • Mariana trabaja lejos de su casa.
  • Ellos viajarán lejos de aquí.
junto a (= al lado de) = next to
  • La chica que me gusta está junto a la puerta.
  • La escoba está junto a la pared.
sobre (= encima de) = on / on top of / upon
  • Mis cuadernos están sobre el escritorio.
  • Las cartas ya están sobre la mesa.
PRESENT TENSE: regular verbs
1. ABRIR : to open
Yo: abro Nosotros: abrimos
Tú: abres Vosotros: abrís
Ella: abre Ellos: abren
2. APRENDER : to learn
Yo: aprendo Nosotros: aprendemos
Tú: aprendes Vosotros: aprendéis
Ella: aprende Ellos: aprenden
3. ASISTIR : to attend
Yo: asisto Nosotros: asistimos
Tú: asistes Vosotros: asistís
Ella: asiste Ellos: asisten
4. BAILAR : to dance
Yo: bailo Nosotros: bailamos
Tú: bailas Vosotros: bailáis
Ella: baila Ellos: bailan
5. BARRER : to sweep
Yo: barro Nosotros: barremos
Tú: barres Vosotros: barréis
Ella: barre Ellos: barren
6. BEBER : to drink
Yo: bebo Nosotros: bebemos
Tú: bebes Vosotros: bebéis
Ella: bebe Ellos: beben
7. BORRAR : to erase
Yo: borro Nosotros: borramos
Tú: borras Vosotros: borráis
Ella: borra Ellos: borran
8. CAMINAR : to walk
Yo: camino Nosotros: caminamos
Tú: caminas Vosotros: camináis
Ella: camina Ellos: caminan
9. CANTAR : to sing
Yo: canto Nosotros: cantamos
Tú: cantas Vosotros: cantáis
Ella: canta Ellos: cantan
10. COCINAR : to cook
Yo: cocino Nosotros: cocinamos
Tú: cocinas Vosotros: cocináis
Ella: cocina Ellos: cocinan
11. COMER : to eat
Yo: como Nosotros: comemos
Tú: comes Vosotros: coméis
Ella: come Ellos: comen
12. COMPRENDER : to understand
Yo: comprendo Nosotros: comprendemos
Tú: comprendes Vosotros: comprendéis
Ella: comprende Ellos: comprenden
13. CORRER : to run
Yo: corro Nosotros: corremos
Tú: corres Vosotros: corréis
Ella: corre Ellos: corren
14. DESAYUNAR : to have breakfast
Yo: desayuno Nosotros: desayunamos
Tú: desayunas Vosotros: desayunáis
Ella: desayuna Ellos: desayunan
15. DIBUJAR : to draw
Yo: dibujo Nosotros: dibujamos
Tú: dibujas Vosotros: dibujáis
Ella: dibuja Ellos: dibujan
16. ESCRIBIR : to write
Yo: escribo Nosotros: escribimos
Tú: escribes Vosotros: escribís
Ella: escribe Ellos: escriben
17. ESCUCHAR : to listen
Yo: escucho Nosotros: escuchamos
Tú: escuchas Vosotros: escucháis
Ella: escucha Ellos: escuchan
18. HABLAR : to speak
Yo: hablo Nosotros: hablamos
Tú: hablas Vosotros: habláis
Ella: habla Ellos: hablan
19. LAVAR : to wash
Yo: lavo Nosotros: lavamos
Tú: lavas Vosotros: laváis
Ella: lava Ellos: lavan
20. LEER : to read
Yo: leo Nosotros: leemos
Tú: lees Vosotros: leéis
Ella: lee Ellos: leen
21. LIMPIAR : to clean
Yo: limpio Nosotros: limpiamos
Tú: limpias Vosotros: limpiáis
Ella: limpia Ellos: limpian
22. LLEVAR : to wear, to carry
Yo: llevo Nosotros: llevamos
Tú: llevas Vosotros: lleváis
Ella: lleva Ellos: llevan
23. MIRAR : to watch
Yo: miro Nosotros: miramos
Tú: miras Vosotros: miráis
Ella: mira Ellos: miran
24. MONTAR : to ride
Yo: monto Nosotros: montamos
Tú: montas Vosotros: montáis
Ella: monta Ellos: montan
25. NADAR : to swim
Yo: nado Nosotros: nadamos
Tú: nadas Vosotros: nadáis
Ella: nada Ellos: nadan
26. PRESTAR : to lend
Yo: presto Nosotros: prestamos
Tú: prestas Vosotros: prestáis
Ella: presta Ellos: prestan
27. RECIBIR : to receive
Yo: recibo Nosotros: recibimos
Tú: recibes Vosotros: recibís
Ella: recibe Ellos: reciben
28. SUBIR : to go up, to rise
Yo: subo Nosotros: subimos
Tú: subes Vosotros: subís
Ella: sube Ellos: suben
29. VENDER : to sell
Yo: vendo Nosotros: vendemos
Tú: vendes Vosotros: vendéis
Ella: vende Ellos: venden
30. VIVIR : to live
Yo: vivo Nosotros: vivimos
Tú: vives Vosotros: vivís
Ella: vive Ellos: viven

IR Ending Verbs

All IR ending verbs (that are regular) will have conjugation done in this way for present, past and future conditions. Some regular IR ending verbs are listed below these charts.
Present Tense drop -IR ending and add:
I yo -o vivir (to live) => yo vivo (I live)
you (informal) -es tú vives (you live)
you (formal) usted -e ud. vive (you live)
we nosotros -imos nosotros vivimos (we live)
you (informal) vosotros -ís vosotros vivís (you all/they live)
you (formal) ellos, ustedes -en uds. viven (you all/they live)

Common irregular verbs

Some verbs are so irregular that you will not be able to recognize when a conjugated form goes with the infinitive of the verb. The most irregular verbs in Spanish are also the most common, so you see the conjugated forms of these verbs often. Eventually, you will come to know the conjugated forms of these verbs so well that it may be difficult to remember the infinitive form. The verb ir means “to go .” Notice that the entire verb looks like the – ir infinitive ending, but it is conjugated nothing at all like a normal – ir verb. Also, notice that the conjugated forms of the verb ir in Table 1 look more like they come from some – ar verb with a v in it.
Once you get used to thinking that voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, and van all mean go or goes, it’s hard to remember that the infinitive that means “to go” is the verb ir. Another really irregular verb is ser, which means “to be .” Be aware that each word that follows a pronoun in Table 2 is the entire form of the verb. As luck would have it, the most common form, es, sounds a lot like its English equivalent “is .” Not only is ser irregular in its conjugated forms, it also has to compete with the verb estar, which also means “to be.”

Irregular verbs in the yo form

Several common verbs in Spanish are completely regular verbs except for the yo form. These are usually called yo irregulars. To help you remember the irregular yo form as you work through this section, verbs with the same irregular yo form are grouped together.
–oy verbs
There are two extremely important verbs that are irregular only because the yo form of the verb ends in – oydar (to give) and estar (to be). As you can see in Tables 3 and 4, the rest of the forms of the verbs have regular endings.Notice that the verb estar has accent marks on all forms except the first person yo and the first person plural nosotros/nosotras.
–go verbs
There are many verbs with a yo form that ends in – go even though there is not a single letter g in the infinitive. Most of these verbs are regular in all of the rest of their forms.The four simplest and most common – go verbs are:The verbs hacer, poner, and valer are all regular – er verbs with an irregular yo form that ends in – go. Tables 5, 6, and 7 show how to conjugate each verb.
Salir is a – go verb like poner, hacer, and valer. However, because it is an – ir verb, it will have the regular endings for an – ir verb, which differ slightly from – er verbs in the nosotros/nosotras and vosotros/vosotrasforms, as shown in Table 8. The next two verbs, caer (to fall) and traer (to bring), follow the regular – er verb patterns of a – go verb, except for the irregular yo form, which adds an i to the conjugated form, as shown in Tables 9 and 10.
Three common – go verbs also fall under another irregular category called stem‐changing verbs. The irregular – go ending of the yo form follows to keep the list of ‐ go verbs together.
Normally you can’t predict that a verb will be irregular in its yo form unless you already know the verb. There is one rule that is consistent, however. If the infinitive of the verb ends in a vowel followed by – cer or – cir, theyo form of the verb ends in – zco. Here are the infinitive forms of some of the most common –zco verbs:These verbs are all conjugated exactly like conocer, which is the example used in Table 11. Use this table as model when you need to conjugate the other –zco verbs.There are many verbs that end in – ducir. Because they all have the same ending, a vowel followed by – cir, they are conjugated the same way. All their forms are regular except the yo form, which ends in – zco.Four common – ducir verbs are presented in the following list. The verb producir is conjugated in Table 12. Use that table as a model to conjugate the other three, as well as any other – ducir verb.
ver and saber
Two other verbs have unique yo forms. Both ver (to see) and saber (to know [a fact]) are regular – er verbs in all forms except the yo form, but their yo forms are completely different, as shown in Tables 13 and 14.

Present Progressive Forms in Spanish:

The present progressive tense combines the present indicative of the verb estar (to be) with the present participle of another verb to indicate an action in progress. The present progressive tells what a person “is doing” right now.

  • Estoy hablando con mi madre. (I am speaking with my mother (right now).)
  • Los niños están jugando en el patio. (The children are playing in the yard (right now).)
  • ¿Estás yendo a la tienda ahora? (Are you going to the store now?)
The present participle never changes according to the tense. The progressive tense can be used in any time reference simply by changing the tense of estar, creating the present progressive, preterite progressive, the imperfect progressive, the future progressive, etc. This article explains how to form and when to use the present progressive tense.

Present Progressive Forms

The present progressive is a verb phrase consisting of both estar (the “is” part which indicates the tense) and the present participle (the “-ing” part which indicates what the action is). To form the present progressive, conjugate estar to the present indicative tense and add the present participle form of the verb that the person is actually doing. Present Progressive Formula: estarpresent participle (verb stem + -ando for -ar verbs/-iendo for -er and -ir verbs)
Estoy hablando I am speaking Estamos hablando We are speaking
Estás hablando You are speaking Estáis hablando You (all) are speaking
Está hablando You (formal) are speaking He/she is speaking Están hablando You (all, formal) are speaking They are speaking

Present Progressive Uses

Single Current Actions

Simply, what a person is doing right now, and action they are currently participating in.

  • Está escribiendo un ensayo para su clase de español. (He is writing an essay for his Spanish class.)
  • Estamos cocinando la cena. (We are cooking dinner (right now).)
  • Están durmiendo en el dormitorio pequeño. (They are sleeping in the small bedroom (right now).)

In English and Spanish, this is usually expressed using the present progressive, but it is possible to use the present tense in Spanish as well.

  • ¿Qué haces(What are you doing?)
  • Limpio la cocina. (I’m cleaning the kitchen.)
  • ¿Cómo estás(How are you doing?)
  • Estoy bien, gracias. (I´m doing well, thank you.)
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